The Conversion Agenda

"Freedom to convert" is counterproductive as a generalized doctrine. It fails to come to terms with the complex interrelationships between self and society that make the concept of individual choice meaningful. Hence, religious conversion undermines, and in extremes would dissolve, that individual autonomy and human freedom.

Tuesday, October 25, 2005

Christian Crimeline

0-36 Life of Christ Alleged life of Christ: despite efficiency of Roman system no records exist of his birth, trial or death, leading many to claim existence concocted.

33-6 Ministry of Christ Alleged ministry of Christ: Jesus accused of "possession by evil spirits" (John 7:20; 10:20); this may explain evil nature of Christian followers over centuries.

36 Death of Christ Alleged crucifixion of Christ: Christianity becomes first religion with lawfully-convicted felon as god; this may explain criminal behaviour of Christian followers over centuries.

36-65 Oral tradition Whole generation transpires before first account of Christ's life is written; this raises questions over why it took so long for anyone to write it.

36-67 Peter Peter allegedly establishes first church and spreads Christian faith from Jerusalem to Rome where he is allegedly crucified in 67; no evidence proves he existed.

36-65 Paul of Tarsus Paul (Saul) of Tarsus allegedly orders destruction of Israel Christian church before converting to Christianity; no evidence proves Paul existed.

48-62 Pauline books Teachings of Jesus allegedly recorded by Paul despite claims by many scholars that he could not possibly have met Christ.

48-9 First council First Christian Council establishes circumcision and dietary laws borrowed from Hebrew tradition.

64 Cornelius Tacitus Roman historian Tacitus (55-120) condemns Christians as religion hated for its abominable crimes.

65 Mark gospel First "eyewitness" or "Q" account of Jesus written by gospel author called Mark some 30 years after alleged death of Christ.

65-125 Key scriptures Matthew, Luke, John, Revelations, Acts written by "eyewitnesses" of Christ although most scholars claim books written up to 6 generations after Christ's alleged death.

125-350 Bible assembled Period during which most scholars agree first Bible "assembled".

166 Easter Soter I (166-175) becomes first pope to suggest Christians should celebrate Christ's feast day on Sunday (later Easter Sunday).

170 Irenaeus First great theologian and Greek writer Irenaeus (130-200), Bishop of Lyons, is accused of having adapted or forged John gospel.

170 Montanists First heresy council against Montanist sect in Asia Minor.

c180 Irenaeus List Bishop Irenaeus compiles first list of biblical writings resembling today's New Testament.

c180 Celsus Philosopher Celsus claims Christians "remodelled their gospel from its first written form and reformed it so that they may be able to refute objections".

c180 Virgin birth Celsus finds doctrine of Incarnation and Crucifixion repugnant and denounces gospel accounts of virgin birth as "fabricated".

c190 Women St Clement of Alexandria (150-215) says "every woman should be filled with shame by the thought that she is a woman".

190 Victor I Christian council, under Victor I (189-199), makes Easter Sunday official day of celebration for Christians in Rome.

190 Excommunication Victor I excommunicates Eastern churches for not recognising or observing Roman Church's official Easter Sunday.

c223 New Testament Christians first apply term "New Testament" to early Bible according to church father Tertullian (c160-225).

c223 Mary prostitute Tertullian (c160-225) cites rumour Jesus son of prostitute.

c248 Birth fabricated Church historian Origen (185-254) cites account Jesus fabricated virgin birth and that Mary committed adultery with Roman soldier called Panthera.

c248 Jesus magician Origen (185-254) cites account Jesus worked as labourer in Egypt and learned magic before claiming God title.

250-4 Persecutions Origen (185-254) claims few Christians died from Roman persecutions "and only from time to time, and at intervals".

258 Forgeries Cyprian (d 258), Bishop of Carthage, accuses Christian leaders of "faking his letters" and other forgeries within church.

264 Forgeries Pope Dionysius (260-268) accuses Christian leaders of "faking his own letters just as they had changed the gospels".

275 Mithras Powerful Persian Mithrasian religion almost fades completely in Rome as Christian sects based on Mithraism, Manicheism and Gnosticism take root.

312 Constantine Roman Emperor Constantine (d 337) converts to Christianity to bolster own military power and unite vast and troubled Roman Empire.

312 Vision of Christ Constantine claims Christ appeared to him in dream before battle of Milvian Bridge: becomes church's first protector.

c312 Official religion Constantine makes Christianity official religion of Roman Empire: first blood shed over doctrinal differences between Athanasian and Eusebian sects.

c312 Pagans condemned Christians condemn all pagan religions as demonic: Constantine authorises demolition of temples or conversion to Christian shrines.

314 Papal palace Constantine gives Pope Miltiades (311-14) Christian church's first papal palace as gift.

314 Artemis denounced Council of Ancyra denounces worship of Greek nature and moon goddess, Artemis.

314 Abominable butcher Constantine is described as "one of the most abominable butchers and fiends of cruelty that ever lived" after executing own son and boiling wife alive.

314 Pagan massacres Constantine defends Christian massacre of pagans in Egypt and Palestine.

319 Clergy concessions Constantine passes law excusing Christian clergy from paying taxes or serving in army: law attracts new priests for wrong reasons.

319 Arius Alexandrian priest Arius (250-336) poses serious threat to church's tax-exemption status by publicly denouncing divinity of Christ.

321 Sunday holiday Constantine orders Sunday to become public holiday in accordance with Old Testament teachings.

325 Nicean Council Constantine calls for Christendom's 250 bishops to attend First Nicean Council to settle disputes over nature of Christ and other church doctrine.

325 Nicean Creed Constantine institutes Nicean Creed to unify Christian Incarnation and Resurrection beliefs; Divine Trinity doctrine is approved to attract pluralistic pagans.

325 Jews accountable Constantine insists on making Jews accountable for Jesus' death in political move to attract more Romans into church.

326 Aphrodite Constantine orders destruction of temples of Greek love goddess Aphrodite in Jerusalem and Phoenicia.

331 Constantinople Constantine becomes Rome's sole emperor and moves seat of Roman Empire to Constantinople (formerly Byzantium).

314 Pagan treasures Constantine steals treasures and statues from Greek pagan temples to decorate Constantinople.

335 Magicians Constantine orders death by crucifixion of magicians and soothsayers in Asia Minor and Palestine.

336-61 Aryan schism 10,000 Arian Christians are killed for disagreeing with Nicean decision that Jesus is divine being; Arians claim Christ is created being.
(thanks to JustSumner for the correction from 1,000,000 to 10,000)

336 Asia minor Constantine sacks pagan temples of Asia Minor and Palestine to furnish churches of Constantinople.

337 Constantine dies Constantine is baptised on his deathbed.

340 Christmas Julius I sanctions December 25 as Christ's official birthdate thereby quashing Roman Feast of Saturnus among other pagan festivities.

341 Soothsayers Emperor Flavius Julius Constantius orders execution or imprisonment of soothsayers and gentiles.

346 Gentiles Constantius launches persecutions against gentiles of Constantinople; famous orator Libanius is condemned as "magician".

354 Temples closed Constantius orders closure of all pagan temples in Christendom and that some are profaned by being turned into brothels.

355 Bishops untried Bishops become exempt from being tried in secular courts resulting in rampant corruption after church becomes law unto itself.

356 Death penalty Constantius orders death penalty for all forms of worship involving idolatry or sacrifices.

357 Divination outlawed Constantius bans all forms of divination, excluding astrology.

359 Death camps Christianity's first death camp is established at Skythopolis, Syria; 1000s of gentiles are exterminated over 30 year period.

363 Laodicea Council of Laodicea names 26 New Testament books as "inspired word of God"; Book of Revelation is excluded.

364 Sabbath Council of Laodicea decrees death for Christians who keep seventh day Sabbath.

364 Antioch library Emperor Flavius Jovianus orders burning of Library of Antioch.

364 Imperial edicts 3 Imperial edicts order confiscation of all pagan temple properties and punishment by death for participation in any form of pagan ritual.

365 Christian command. Imperial edict forbids any gentile or non-Christian officer from commanding Christian soldiers.

366-83 Damasus I Damasus I (366-383) hires thugs to massacre rival Ursinians (Liberians).

c366-83 Heresy bull Damasus I makes it heresy to question nature of Christ and other doctrinal points as decreed at Nicea.

370 Gentiles persecuted Emperor Valens orders widespread persecution of gentiles throughout Eastern Europe.

370 Philosophers murdered Philosopher Simonides is burned alive while philosopher Maximus is decapitated.

372 Hellenes exterminated Emperor Valens orders extermination of Hellenes in Asia Minor.

372-444 Manichaeans Emperor Valens orders extermination of Manichaean Christian sect for preaching non-Nicean doctrines; numerous thousands persecuted over 70 year period.

380 Official religion Emperor Flavius Theodosius declares Christianity official religion of Roman Empire.

380 Illegal to disagree Theodosius reinforces Damasus I's decree and makes it illegal for believers to question church doctrine.

c380 Unbelievers "insane" Theodosius condemns unbelievers as "demented and insane" and orders they "be smitten first by divine vengeance and secondly by retribution of our own initiative".

381 Christ's divinity Council of Theodosius at Constantinople declares Jesus had truly human soul.

381 Temples profaned Christians turn Constantinople's Temple of Aphrodite into brothel and Temple of Artemis into stables.

382 Hallelujah Hallelu-jah "glory to Yahweh" introduced to Christian mass.

383 Latin gospels Jerome (342-420) presents Pope Damasus I with new Latin gospels, claiming "originals lost".

c383 Sex Jerome reinforces sexual repression by preaching that "a husband commits a sin if he enjoys sex with his wife too much".

383 Adultery Damasus I is convicted of adultery by 44 bishops but has case overthrown after church patron Emperor Gratian intervenes.

385 Priscillian Ascetic leader Priscillian and 6 followers are beheaded by bishops of Trier, Germany, for doubting Trinity and Resurrection.

386 Pagan temples Christians destroy pagan temples: "If (Christians) hear of a place with something worth raping away, they immediately claim someone is making sacrifices there".

388 Public discussion Emperor Theodosius introduces law prohibiting discussion of religious doctrine outside church.

389 Pagan calendars Theodosius outlaws all non-Christian calendars.

391 Temple visits Theodosius prohibits visits to pagan temples and even merely looking at pagan statues becomes criminal offence.

395 Paganism prohibited Theodosius introduces law making paganism criminal offence and orders banning of pagan events including Olympic Games.

396 Paganism treasonable Emperor Flavius Arcadius orders paganism to be treated as high treason; few remaining priests are imprisoned.

397-399 Paganism destroyed Emperor Arcadius orders destruction of almost all pagan temples.

398 Pagan books banned Fourth Council of Carthage forbids bishops from reading pagan books.

398-403 Slavery John Chrysostom, Bishop of Constantinople (398-403), quotes Titus 2:9-10 to support slavery: "The slave should be resigned to his lot; "in obeying his master he is obeying God".

405 Palestine Chrysostom calls on wealthy Christian women to help fund his crusades throughout Palestine.

408 St Augustine St Augustine of Hippo (354-430) orders massacre of 100s of pagans at Calama, Algeria, after his Christian conversion in 386.

413 Slavery Augustine begins writing City of God where he claims: "slavery is now penal in character and planned by that law which commands the preservation of the natural order and forbids disturbance".

415 Hypatia Cyril, Bishop of Alexandria (376-444), executes pagan philosopher Hypatia (375-415) for being woman going against God's will by teaching men; Christian mob parades her mutilated body through Alexandrian streets.

c415 Jews expelled Cyril has all Jews expelled from Alexandria; North African pagan priests are hunted down and crucified or burned alive.

416 Bithynia Christian inquisitor Hypatius, "Sword of God", exterminates few remaining gentiles of Bithynia.

416 Public offices Edict introduced in Constantinople makes it illegal for non-Christians to hold positions as judges, army officers or public employees.

418 Original Sin African Bishop Alypius offers bribe of 80 Numidian stallions for church to accept Augustine's doctrine of original sin into its teachings.

c418 Damnation Augustine's doctrine of original sin is accepted along with his teaching that anyone who does not choose to follow Christ is damned for all eternity.

420-1100 Dark Ages Church engineers complete control over education; reading and writing are restricted only to potential priests and knowledge outside church is suppressed.

420-1100 Religion rules "There was a time when religion ruled the world; it is known as the Dark Ages" - Ruth Hurmence Green (1915-81).

420-1100 Medicine Advances in Greek and Roman medicine and hygiene are declared heretical; plague sweeps Europe resulting in huge casualties.

420-1100 Technology Roads, aqueducts, heating, indoor plumbing and other technology invented by Greeks and Romans disappear as church power increases during Dark Ages.

420-1100 History History is rewritten by church fathers claiming world is only 5000 years old.

420-1100 Science Science is pushed back 2000 years; Pythagoras' idea earth revolves around sun (600BC) is banned by church even when reintroduced by Copernicus in 1600s; Aristarchus' heliocentric theory (300BC) is banned by church until reintroduced by Galileo in 1600s.

429 Parthenon Christians persecute pagans of Athens before sacking Temple of Athena (Parthenon).

431 Mother Mary Council of Ephesus decrees Mary may be officially worshiped as Mother of God.

431 Ireland St Patrick (390-461) begins Christian mission in Ireland.

432-40 Sixtus III Sixtus III (432-440) is charged with seducing nun but escapes death sentence by telling biblical tale of woman caught in adultery.

435 Death threat Law is introduced threatening heretics in Roman Empire with death.

435 Two religions Pagan worship becomes illegal in Rome: only Christianity and Judaism are permitted to exist; remaining pagan temples are destroyed or converted to Christian churches.

c435 Intermarriage Intermarriage between Christian and Jew becomes illegal; women convicted of crime are charged with adultery and sentenced to death.

440-450 Greek temples Christian mobs destroy monuments, altars and temples of Athens, Olympia and other Greek cities.

444 Jewish persecutions Cyril, Bishop of Alexandria, orders expulsion of all Jews from Egypt.

447 Council of Toledo First council of Toledo ratifies Devil as "a large black monstrous apparition with horns on his head, cloven hoofs ... an immense phallus and sulphurous smell".

448 Book burnings Theodosius II (401-450) orders burning of all non-Christian books.

450 Resurrection Resurrection of Christ described by author attributed to Mark is accepted into Bible almost 400 years after time allegedly written.

450 200 gospels Theodore of Cyrrhus claims there are at least 200 different gospels in his own diocese; this raises questions concerning why Irenaeus chose only four.

451 Nature of Christ Council of Chalcedon declares Jesus has two natures: one human, one divine.

451 Mary not mother Nestorian sect led by Nestorius of Constantinople declares Mary not mother of God.

484-519 Acacian schism Eastern (Greek) Church breaks from Western (Roman) Church after denying divine paternity of Christ.

486 Underground pagans Pagans driven underground by Christians in Alexandria are flushed out, tortured and executed.

491 Armenian schism Armenian Church breaks from Eastern and Western churches.

496 Clovis Clovis converts to Christianity and becomes first King of the Franks (West Germans).

c500 Franks Estimated 500 Germanic tribes convert to Christianity under Frankish King Clovis.

c500-700 Powerful nation Christian Franks become most powerful Christian nation in Europe.

500 Incense Pagan concept of incense burning is introduced to Christian services.

c500 Women Christian philosopher Anicius Boethius (480-524) writes in The Consolation of Philosophy that "woman is a temple built upon a sewer.

c500 Council of Macon Council of Macon votes on whether women have souls.

515 Compulsory baptism Rite of baptism, stolen from several pagan religions, becomes mandatory in Christian religion.

515 Zoara Emperor Anastasius of Constantinople orders massacre of gentiles in Arabian city of Zoara.

528 Divination Emperor Justinianus orders execution of diviners by fire, crucifixion or tearing to pieces by iron nails or wild beasts.

529 Philosophy Justinian the Great closes Athens' famous 1000-year-old School of Philosophy, declaring it paganistic and threatening to Christian thought.

532-577 Asia Minor Inquisitor Ioannis Asiacus leads crusade against Asia Minor gentiles; 99 churches and 12 monasteries are built on sites of demolished pagan temples.

533 North Africa North Africa is captured by Belisarius; becomes Roman Catholic province.

534-870 Malta Malta becomes Roman Catholic province.

539-62 Persia War between Roman Catholic Church and Persia.

540-94 Plague 100,000,000 people die during plague which sweeps northward from Egypt and Syria; European population is halved and Roman Empire never recovers.

540-94 Plague terror Church leaders claim plague is God's punishment for not obeying church authority; thousands flock into churches in desperation to be "saved".

546 Constantinople gentiles Inquisitor Ioannis Asiacus puts 100s of gentiles to death in Constantinople.

550 Eastern Bible Eastern Bible is translated into medieval Greek resulting in much "smoothing and conflation".

550 Wales St David converts Wales to Christianity.

550 Crucifix Ancient fertility symbol - cross/crucifix - becomes official Christian symbol.

555 Papal excommunication Vigilius (537-55) becomes first pope excommunicated after conspiring with Justinian and Theodora to kill Pope Silverius (536-37).

556 Antioch gentiles Emperor Justinianus orders inquisitor Amantius to find, arrest, torture and exterminate remaining gentiles at Antioch.

562-582 Greek gentiles Christian inquisitors hunt down, arrest, torture and execute Greek gentiles (Hellenes) across Europe.

580 Temple of Zeus Members of Antioch Temple of Zeus sect are thrown to lions or crucified by Christians before their bodies are dragged through Constantinople streets and thrown in city dump.

583 New persecutions Emperor Mauricius launches new persecutions against Greek gentiles.

587 Spain Visigoths of Spain convert to Christianity.

589 Italy Lombards of Italy convert to Christianity.

590-604 Gregory I 100s of patrons are deceived into purchasing expensive relics Gregory I (590-604) claims belonged to saints; many scholars now claim these saints never existed.

590 Grammar banned Gregory I, or Gregory the Great, sends out order compelling bishops to desist from "wicked labour" of teaching grammar and Latin to lay people.

c590 Education banned Gregory condemns education for all but clergy resulting in society remaining illiterate for almost 1000 years.

c590 Library burned Gregory forbids laypeople from reading Bible and orders burning of Palatine Apollo library so its secular literature would not distract religious.

c590 Pagan conspiracies Christian authorities launch new wave of torture and executions in response to perceived pagan conspiracies in Eastern Europe.

c590 Statues destroyed Many ancient Roman statues, marbles and mosaics are destroyed or turned into lime under Gregory the Great or used to adorn Christian churches and cathedrals.

c590-604 Enforced celibacy Gregory I introduces celibacy edict to prevent property from passing from church to possible wives, families or mistresses of clergy.

c590 Babies murdered 6000 babies are found murdered in pond outside Gregory's Lateran palace after celibacy edict is introduced by Gregory I.

594 Plague ends Plague ends and church moves to dominate field of medicine; Christian monks are taught "bleeding" techniques to prevent toxic imbalances and restore humors.

594+ Bleeding Tens of thousands die each year by bleeding until practise ends in 16th century.

596 Britain St Augustine of Canterbury is sent to convert Britain to Christianity.

600 Ethelbert Christianisation of England begins.

622-80 Monothelitism Council of Constantinople condemns monothelitism as heretics for believing there is only one will or nature in Christ.

625-38 Honorius I Honorius I (625-638) becomes first heretic pope after Leo X accuses him of teaching Christ as "divine only" amid church claims he was "divine and human".

626 Scotland King Edwin of Northumbria founds Edinburgh and begins Christianisation of Scotland.

627-28 Persia Christians under Emperor Heraclius defeat Persians at Ninevah.

628 Mecca Arab prophet Mohammed (b c570) captures Mecca and writes to world rulers explaining Islam.

629 Jerusalem Heraclius recovers Jerusalem from Persians.

632 East Anglia East Anglia is Christianised.

632 Islam Mohammed establishes Islam as official Arab religion; rise of Muslims.

635-850 China Nestorian mission to China.

635 Wessex Wessex is Christianised.

636 Ireland Southern Irish Church submits to Roman Catholicism.

637 Jerusalem conquered Muslims conquer Jerusalem.

640 Library destroyed Great library of Alexandria, described as centre of Western Culture, is destroyed by Christian mobs; 700,000 ancient rolls are burned.

640 Documents burned Christians destroy Gnostic Basilades, Porphyry's 36 volumes, writings of 27 mystery schools and 270,000 documents collected by Ptolemy Philadelphus.

640-1380 English Bible Period between destruction of Library of Alexandria and first complete English translation of Bible.

661 Easter Synod of Whitby sets date of Easter for Roman Catholic Church.

690 Bible translations Earliest translation of parts of Bible into English vernacular.

694 Jewish enslavement Fifth council of Toledo orders enslavement of Jews, their property confiscated and children forcibly baptised.

700 Church splits Western or Roman Church by 700 is divided into four political realms.

c700 Spain Spain is ruled by Christian Visigoths until their fall in 711-713 to Islamic Moors.

c700 England England is ruled by Anglo-Saxons.

c700 Gaul Gaul is ruled by Franks.

c700 Italy Italy is ruled primarily by Lombards.

716-19 Germany Mission to Germans is launched.

752 Donation of Constantine Donation of Constantine, "religion's most spectacular forgery," is used by Stephen II (752) to "prove" territorial and jurisdictional claims to Pepin.

782 Charlemagne Holy Roman Emperor Charlemagne (c742-814) beheads 4500 Saxon rebels in one morning for refusing to convert to Christianity.

800 Universal Emperor Pope Leo III (795-816) declares Charlemagne Universal Emperor.

850 Bible translations King Alfred translates several Bible books into English vernacular.

904-11 Sergius III Sergius III (904-911) murders predecessor Leo V (903) and establishes infamous "papal pornocracy"; he is described as "the most wicked of men".

906 Flying witches Church officially denies witches can fly although thousands later will be consigned to flames based on charges they can.

931-35 John XI John XI (931-935) develops reputation as "debauchee" who courted "beastly women" and "sat in the Chair of Peter during its deepest humiliation".

942 Hungary Hungary is Christianised.

955-66 John XII John XII (955-966) develops reputation as murderer and adulterer; reign becomes so dissolute that Lateran spoken of as brothel.

964 Benedict V Benedict V (964) develops reputation as thief and adulterer; later described as "the most iniquitous of all the monsters of ungodliness".

965-72 John XIII John XIII (965-972) becomes adulterer hated by laypeople; turns Lateran into stews before being murdered by husband who catches him in bed with wife.

966 Poland Poland is Christianised.

973-4 Benedict VI Benedict VI (973-974), born illegitimate son of monk, is strangled for his wickedness after permitting women to be raped under his pontificate.

984-5 Boniface VII Boniface VII (984-985) allegedly murders predecessor to ascend throne; is later described as "horrid monster" who "in criminality, surpassed all the rest of mankind".

988 Russia Russia is Christianised.

999 Millennium Millennium terror results in people donating money, houses and land to church in what became "history's most spectacular giveaway".

1010 French Jews Bishop of Limoges orders expulsion or execution of Jews from France refusing to convert to Christianity.

1012-24 Benedict VIII Benedict VIII (1012-24) assassinates predecessor to ascend throne; Victor III (1086-87) claims he committed "rapes, murders and other unspeakable acts".

1022 Orleans 13 heretics are burned at Orleans by King Robert the Pius.

1032-48 Benedict IX Benedict IX (1032-48) is described as "a demon from Hell disguised as a priest"; allegedly hosts homosexual orgies, sodomises animals and "order murders".

1045-6 Gregory VI Gregory VI (1045-6) allegedly practises same occult magic which later sends thousands to stake for similar activities.

1143-4 Celestine II Celestine II (1143-4) is described as "brutal sadist" after having one Count Jordan strapped naked to scalding iron chair and ordering red-hot crown to be nailed to his head.

c1049 Odo of Cluny Odo (1030-97), Bishop of Bayeux, claims that "to embrace a woman is to embrace a sack of manure".

1054 Church split Split between Eastern and Western churches formalise; Western Church becomes Catholic Church; Eastern Church becomes Orthodox Church.

c1054 Orthodox condemned Catholics consider Orthodox Christians affront to papal authority and condemn them as "Satan's henchmen".

1073-85 Gregory VII Gregory VII (1073-85) establishes reputation as "a brand of Hell" and "filthy fornicator"; allegedly poisons predecessor Alexander II and 6 bishops.

1085 Toledo King Alfonso VI of Castile takes Muslim city of Toledo, plundering its vast treasures; tales of further Muslim riches create desires among Christian leaders to ransack their lands.

1095-9 First Crusade Urban II (1088-99) calls for European knights to march on Jerusalem under Christian umbrella to wrest Holy Land from Turkish Muslims. Jews and dark-skinned Christians also targets.

1096 People's Crusade Catholic preacher Peter the Hermit (c1050-1115) leads 1000s of peasants in holy war on Belgrade, chief city of Orthodox Church after Constantinople.

1096 Yugoslavia Amid confused fighting, Peter the Hermit's peasant army accidentally slaughters 4,000 Christian residents of Zemun, Yugoslavia.

1096 Goose Crusade Scores of German Jews are hacked or burned to death by Christian fanatics who follow goose "blessed by God".

1096 Muslim slaughter 4,000,000 to 7,000,000 Muslims die as Peter the Hermit's peasants follow Christian knights into Jerusalem; crusaders believe killing Muslims "good for soul".

1096 Jewish slaughter Estimated 12,000 Jews are slaughtered during first crusade; Historian Dagobert Runes estimates 3,500,000 Jews are killed during seven Holy Wars.

1098 Antioch Historian H Wollschläger estimates 100,000 Muslims, including women and children, were slaughtered by Christian crusaders at Turkish Antioch.

1098 Marra Historian H Wollschläger estimates 1000s were slaughtered by Christian crusaders at Maraat an-numan.

1099 Battle of Askalon Historian H Wollschläger estimates more than 200,000 were slaughtered "in the name of Our Lord Jesus Christ".

1099 Jerusalem Jerusalem taken by crusaders. Historian H Wollschläger estimates more than 60,000 Jewish and Muslim men, women and children were slaughtered by Christians in Jerusalem.

1099 Jerusalem Raymond of Aguilers describes Christian capture of Jerusalem: "One rode about everywhere amid the corpses of men and horses". Nicetas Choniates says: "Even the Saracens are merciful and kind compared to these men who bear the cross of Christ on their shoulders".

1141 Censorship Catholic priest Peter Abelard is sentenced to life imprisonment for listing church contradictions in book entitled Yes and No.

1146-8 Second Crusade Pope Eugenius III (1145-53) calls for holy war on Muslims at Edessa; St Bernard of Clairvaux declares: "The Christian glories in the death of the pagan because thereby Christ himself is glorified".

1147 French Jews Historian K Deschner estimates several hundred Jews were slain at Ham, Sully, Carentan and Rameru in France.

1171 Blois, France 38 Jewish leaders in Blois, France, are burned to death in locked wooden shed for refusing to convert to Christianity.

1180 Reginald de Chatillon Christian Karakian ruler breaks 2-year peace treaty with King Saladin of Egypt and Assyria (c1137-93) sparking outbreak of war against Franks.

1181 Inquisition procedures Lucius III (1181-85) establishes procedures for Inquisition.

1187 Jerusalem recaptured Saladin recaptures Jerusalem but unlike Christian crusaders of 1099, not one Christian is harmed.

1187-92 Third Crusade Pope Gregory VIII (1187) declares holy war on Muslims in Jerusalem as well as on pagans, Cathars and Jews in Europe and England; many communities sacked and destroyed.

1187-92 Stupid loss of life Estimated 1,000,000 lives are lost during 5 year crusade at hands of people historian E Gibbon describes as "the most stupid and savage refuse of people".

1191 Richard Lion Heart 3000 men, women and children are slaughtered outside Acre during third crusade; stomachs are cut open in search for swallowed gems.

1191-8 Celestine III Heresy crimewave is triggered after Celestine III permits marriage annulment if either partner is proved heretic.

1198-1216 Innocent III Innocent III declares "anyone who attempts to construe a personal view of God which conflicts with church dogma must be burned without pity".

c1200 Property seizure Innocent III sanctions bull granting church ownership of all wealth and property belonging to individuals convicted of heresy.

1200-4 Fourth Crusade Catholic armies are sent to fight Muslims in Jerusalem but end up fighting themselves; 1000s die as Catholics sack Orthodox Church cities of Constantinople and Zara during crusade described as "total failure".

1204 Constantinople Innocent III orders sack of Constantinople of which commentators said: "never since the creation of the world had so much booty been taken from a city".

c1204 Just punishment Innocent III sees rape of Constantinople as just punishment for Orthodox Church's refusal to submit to Roman Catholic Church.

c1204 Jews Innocent III orders Jews to wear distinctive clothing for easy identification; during Passion Week Jews are refused sale of food in hope of starving them.

1206 Rosaries Rosary is reportedly given to St Dominic by apparition of Mary.

1208-38 Albigenses 1,000,000 Albigensians (Cathars) perish in south of France after Innocent III launches holy war described as one of history's most terrible campaigns.

c1208 St Nazair 12,000 are slaughtered at Cathedral of St Nazair.

c1208 Toulouse 10,000 are executed by Bishop Folque of Toulouse.

c1208-9 Beziers (France) 20,000 Cathari are slaughtered by Catholic Church commanding legate Arnaud; other chroniclers estimate between 60,000 and 100,000 deaths.

1209 Carcassonne Historian H Wollschläger estimates 1000s were slain by Christian crusaders at Carcassonne.

1209 First English witch tortured Agnes, wife of Odo, becomes first English witch charged with sorcery after undergoing ordeal of grasping red-hot poker.

1210 Book banning Pope Innocent III (1198-1216) issues bull banning reading of Aristotle in Paris; another bull is issued in 1215.

1212 Children's Crusade 1000s of children die after they are sent to fight Muslims in belief they would be empowered by God: most die or are sold into slavery during crusade described as "great embarrassment" to church.

1213 England/Ireland England and Ireland become papal fiefs.

1213 Peter the Wise English hermit Peter the Wise is accused of treason and sentenced to death after predicting death of King John.

1215 Heresy Lateran Council decides on death penalty becoming Canon Law for all cases of heresy.

1215 Magna Carta King John grants charter at Runnymede recognising rights of church, barons and freemen.

1215 Spanish Muslims Catholic Castilian and Aragonese armies unite to battle Turkish Muslims at Las Navas de Tolosa, Spain.

1215 Dominicans Dominican order established.

1216-27 Honorius III Honorius III (1216-1227) allegedly writes one of history's most notorious black magic books, Grimoire of Honorius the Great.

1217-22 Fifth Crusade Pope Honorius III (1216-27) launches holy war on Egyptian Muslims which ends in disaster for Christians; numerous lives are lost.

1227-41 Gregory IX 100,000 to 2,000,000 die over 500 years after Gregory establishes first of three Holy Inquisitions in 1232.

1228-29 Sixth Crusade Gregory IX (1227-41) declares holy war on Muslims and succeeds in reoccupying Jerusalem as part of temporary peace treaty.

1231 Holy Office Gregory IX (1227-1241) establishes Holy Office as separate tribunal independent of bishops and prelates.

1231 Heretic burning Gregory IX issues papal bull decreeing burning of heretics and other church enemies as standard penalty.

1231 Rights denied Holy Inquisition denies right of counsel and replaces common law tradition of "innocent until proven guilty" with "guilty until proven innocent".

1232 First Inquisition Gregory appoints members of Dominican order to run Holy Inquisition.

1232+ Thousands die 35,534 individuals are burned during Inquisition; 18,637 more are burned in effigy while 293,533 receive other Inquisitional punishments.

c1232 Robert le Bourge 183 victims are sent to stake in single week by Robert le Bourge.

c1232 Bernard Gui 930 victims have property confiscated, 307 are imprisoned and 42 are burned under Bernard Gui.

1233 Toulouse Inquisition is established in Toulouse.

1234 Altenesch, Germany Church orders massacre of between 5,000 and 11,000 men, women and children at Altenesch, Germany, for refusing to pay suffocating church taxes.

1235 Fulda, Germany Historian K Deschner claims 34 Jewish men and women were slain by Christians at Fulda, Germany.

1238 Aragon Inquisition is established in Aragon.

1244 Council of Narbonne Council of Norbonne decrees that all heresy sentences must include mandatory flagellation.

1248-50 Seventh Crusade Pope Innocent IV (1243-54) declares disastrous holy war on Egyptian Muslims resulting in capture and imprisonment of St Louis IX of France (1214-70).

1252 Torture sanctioned Innocent IV (1243-54) sanctions torture for extraction of confessions from heretics.

1257-1267 English Jews Historian K Deschner reports extermination of Jewish communities in London, Canterbury, Northampton, Lincoln and Cambridge.

1260 Shroud of Turin Date Shroud of Turin is forged according to 1988 study.

1262 Bloodshed absolved Inquisitional torturers are granted authority to absolve each other from bloodshed by blaming Devil for claiming victims' souls.

1271-95 Marco Polo Famous Venetian merchant (1254-1324) travels overland to China.

1272 Thinking Gregory X (1271-76) issues bull banning discussion of any theological matter outside church.

1272 Thomas Aquinas Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274) publishes Summa Theologica which lays foundations for witchcraft trials by claiming men and women can have sexual intercourse with demons.

c1272 Women persecuted Aquinas promotes gender persecution by describing women as "God's mistake": "Nothing defective should have been produced in the first establishment of things; so women ought not to have been produced then".

1275 First witchburning Angele, Lady of Labarthe, France, becomes first woman burned for witchcraft after Toulouse Inquisition convicts her of eating babies and having intercourse with Devil.

1275-1894 Witchburnings Estimated 9,000,000 witches, mostly women, are burned by Catholics and Protestants until 1894 when last European witch is executed.

1276 First Dominican pope Innocent V becomes first Dominican pope.

1278 Bishop of Bayeux Peter, Bishop of Bayeux, France, and his nephew are tried for using sorcery against Philip III.

1279 Kublai Khan Kublai Khan.

1285 Munich 180 Jews are burned in Munich after rumour spreads that Christian child was bled to death in synagogue.

1290 Polish Jews Historian K Deschner estimates 10,000 Jews were slaughtered my marauding Christians in Bohemia.

1291 Crusades end Muslims recapture last Christian stronghold, Acre, in retaliation for Richard's massacre century earlier.

1294-1303 Boniface VIII Boniface VIII (1294-1303) is accused of murder, rape, simony, heresy, atheism and homosexuality; pontificate is described as "one record of evil".

1294 Bern All Jews in Bern, Switzerland are killed or expelled amid claims they had ritually sacrificed Christian children.

1294-1368 China Catholicism is established in China.

1295-1303 Boniface VIII Boniface VIII (1295-1303) declares every creature is subject to authority of pope.

1297 Palestrina 6,000 citizens of Palestrina are slaughtered after Boniface VIII orders papal troops to kill all inhabitants of town belonging to rival family.

1298 Nuremburg 628 Jews are killed after Nuremburg priest spreads story that Jews drove nails through communion hosts, "thereby crucifying Christ again".

1298 Nuremburg Christian Bavarian knight Rindfleisch destroys 146 Jewish communities in 6 months after hearing rumours communion hosts "had been tortured".

1300 Apostolicals Gerhard Sagarellus of Parma is burned at stake for founding heretical Apostolical sect.

1305-78 Avignon papacy Popes move from Rome to Avignon, France, causing Great Schism from 1378 to 1415, in which first two then three popes claimed Throne of Peter.

1305-14 Clement V Clement V (1305-14) earns reputation as nepotist and pope who helped French King Philip the Fair to seize wealth of Knights Templars on trumped-up charges.

1307 Apostolicals Bishop of Milan orders Dolcino, successor to Gerhard Sagarellas, to be burned along with remaining members of Apostolical sect.

1308 Bishop of Troyes Guichard, Bishop of Troyes, France, is charged with using magic against Philip le Bel and other aristocrats.

1309 Avignon Papacy is exiled to Avignon, France.

1310 Knights Templar 54 knights are burned by Clement V (1305-14) who later declares he had "no sufficient reason to condemn them".

1314 Jacques de Molay Jacques de Molay, Grand Master of Knights Templar, is burned alive in Paris.

1314 Alips de Mons Alips de Mons and various associates are accused in France of using image magic against Louis X.

1316-34 John XXII John XXII (1316-1334) ascends papal throne to become world's richest man and first pontiff to promote theory of witchcraft.

1318 Dead heretics John XXII sanctions bull allowing heresy charges to be brought against dead people.

1320 Black arts John XXII instructs French Inquisition to confiscate all property belonging to blasphemers or dabblers in black arts.

1321 Dante Dante's Divine Comedy is published which places two popes in Hell - Boniface VIII and Nicholas III - along with numerous cardinals.

1324 Kilkenny, Ireland Irish maid Petronilla de Midia (or Meath), of Kilkenny, becomes first witch burned at stake in Ireland after Bishop of Ossory accuses her of heresies and occult practices.

1326 Property heresy John XXII sanctions Cum inter nonnullos bull declaring it heresy to suggest Jesus and his apostles owned no property.

1326 Witchcraft reality John XXII issues bull emphasising reality of witchcraft and denouncing witches as enemies of Christianity.

1327 Meister Eckhart German mystic Meister Eckhart (1260-1327) dies heretic after claiming "when the soul recognises the Kingdom, there is no further need for preaching or instruction".

1334-42 Benedict XII Former inquisitor Benedict XII (1334-1342) is described as "a Nero" who turned papal palace into "a sewer where is gathered all the filth of the world".

1335 Toulouse Anne-Marie de Georgel and Catherine Delort are convicted by Toulouse Inquisition of being seduced by Devil, travelling by magic, eating babies and working evil.

1337 Deggendorf, Germany Entire Jewish population of Deggendorf, Germany, is burned after stories spread they had defiled communion hosts.

1337 Bavarian Jews Jewish persecution spreads to Bavaria, Austria and Poland where 51 Jewish towns are attacked.

1342-52 Clement VI Clement VI (1342-52) is described as "an ecclesiastical Dionysus" who cavorted with mistresses on ermine bedspreads as Black Death swept Europe.

1347-50 Bubonic Plague 27,000,000 die during Bubonic Plague also called "The Death" which many Christians claim Jews started.

1347-50 Jews killed 18,600 Jews are killed in 350 separate massacres by Christians believing Jews had started Bubonic Plague.

c1347 Bavaria 10,000 Jews are slaughtered after Christian mobs wielding pitchforks and sickles slash through 80 Jewish communities in Bavaria.

c1347-8 Basel, Switzerland 600 Jews are burned as well-poisoners and 140 children are baptised into Christian families at Basel, Switzerland.

c1347 Brussels 600 Jews are massacred after Catholic flagellants march through Brussels.

1348 Strasbourg, France 2000 Jews are herded into large wooden barn and burned after Christians accuse them of starting Bubonic Plague.

1349 German Jews More Jews are murdered, mostly burned alive, in single year than Christians persecuted by Romans over 200 years. Historian K Deschner reports 350 German Jewish communities attacked.

1349 Mainz 6000 Jews are massacred in single day by Christians claiming Jews started Bubonic Plague.

1349 Frankfurt Scores of Jews are slaughtered after Catholic flagellants march through Frankfurt.

1367 Mortuary tax Church introduces mortuary tax or "succession duty" entitling it to one-third of deceased's estate.

1378-1417 Great Schism Two popes reign during Great Schism period: one in Rome, one in Avignon; they fight over ideology, practices, politics and leadership.

1370 Brussels 100 Jews are burned and 500 "mutilated until dead" after claims unnamed Jew broke communion wafer.

1375 Cessna 2500-5000 inhabitants of Cessna are massacred under future Clement VII for revolting against papal authority; women are raped and children ransomed.

1380 John Wycliffe John Wycliffe (1330-1384) supervises English translation of Bible but is condemned after he claims papal authority is ill-founded in Scripture.

1384 Lollards John Wycliffe's followers, called Lollards, are captured and either locked in stocks or burned at stake.

1389-1404 Boniface IX Boniface IX (1389-1404) builds reputation as nepotist and murderer who sold papal offices, indulgences and canonisations to highest bidders.

1389 Prague Jews Historian K Deschner estimates 3000 Jews were slaughtered by Christians in Prague.

1391 Seville Jews Archbishop Martinez of Seville launches Holy War on Jews resulting in 4000 lives lost; 25,000 surviving Jews sold into slavery where archbishop forces those aged over 10 to wear identification badges.

1391 Jehenne de Brigue Jehenne de Brigue is burned alive in Paris pig market after using charms for healing and neglecting to say Paternoster on Sundays.

1391 Paris witchtrial Macette Ruilly is burned alive in Paris pig market after allegedly bewitching her husband so she could conduct affair with local curate.

1400 Death duty Church decrees mortal sin not to leave at least 10 per cent of one's estate to church in will.

1408 Bible translations Council of Oxford forbids translations of Scriptures into vernacular unless approved by Church.

1414 Council of Constance John XXIII (1410-15) is accused of 70 crimes at Council of Constance and is deposed for adultery, incest, atheism and murdering predecessor Alexander V.

1415 John Huss Dr John Huss and disciple Jerome are burned alive for denouncing church immorality, corruption and sale of indulgences.

1418 Papal Schism ends Papacy continues in Rome.

1428-50 Dauphine Trials 110 women and 57 men are burned alive during witchcraft trials spanning 20 years in Dauphine, France.

1431 Joan of Arc Joan of Arc (1412-31) is burned alive for heresy at Rouen after claiming God told her to save France from English invaders.

1431-67 Vlad Dracula Vlad "The Impaler", described as Eastern Europe's greatest Christian defender, slaughters 200,000 people, many by impalement, during 3 reigns.

1440 Gilles de Rais French aristocrat Gilles de Rais (1904-40) is executed after confessing to charges concocted by church leaders bent on seizing his vast wealth.

1441 Duchess of Gloucester English aristocrat Eleanor Cobham, Duchess of Gloucester, is sentenced to life imprisonment after being accused of using witchcraft to destroy King.

1441 Roger Bolingbroke Oxford scholar Roger Bolingbroke is hanged, drawn and quartered after being accused of using sorcery to destroy King.

1447-55 Nicholas V First Renaissance pope.

c1450s Firearms Use of artillery and other firearms begins in Europe and Middle East.

1450-1600 Witchburnings 30,000 people are burned as witches by Inquisition between 1450 and 1600.

1450-1750 Witchburnings 200,000 or more individuals are burned as witches in Europe and America between 1450 and 1750.

1450+ Germany 100,000 individuals are burned by Protestants and Catholics in Germany where more trials occur than in any other European country.

1450+ Catholic burnings 30,000 individuals are burned during Catholic Inquisition.

1450+ Scotland 4400 are burned in Protestant Scotland.

1450+ England 1000 are burned in Protestant England.

1452 Nicholas Jacquier Dominican inquisitor Nicholas Jacquier (b 1402) confirms witchcraft as heresy in Flail Against the Heresy of Witchcraft thereby justifying European witchhunts.

1453 Gutenberg Bible First Bible printed using moveable type; new technology permits church and inquisitors to spread their poison more easily.

1453 Constantinople After years of fighting between Catholic and Orthodox Christians, Constantinople finally falls to Turkish Muslims who rename it Istanbul; Byzantine Empire ends.

1453 Breslau 41 Jews are burned to death by Catholics claiming unnamed Jewish woman had stabbed communion wafer.

1455-62 Dracula 100,000 Muslims are slaughtered by Christian crusader Vlad Dracula (1431-1467) in his attempt to defend Christian Europe from Ottoman Turkish Muslims.

1456 Battle of Belgrade Christians slaughter 80,000 Turkish Muslims during Battle of Belgrade.

1458-64 Pius II Pius II (1458-64) builds reputation as former pornographic writer who indulged in total sexual freedom and "gloried in own disorders".

1459-60 First witchhunt 5 individuals are tortured, publicly paraded then burned alive at stake in Arras, France, during Catholic Church's first organised witchhunt.

1460 Dracula 40,000 men and women are killed, many by impalement, after Christian crusader Vlad Dracula (1431-1467) destroys town of Buda, Romania.

1464-71 Paul II Paul II (1464-71) earns reputation as worst Renaissance pope who allegedly dies of heart attack while being sodomised by boy lover.

1471-84 Sixtus IV Sixtus IV earns reputation as incestuous, gay pope who "embodied the utmost possible concentration of human wickedness".

1472 Spanish Inquisition 1000s of Jews, Muslims and Protestants are cruelly murdered after Sixtus IV establishes Spanish Inquisition in 1472.

1492 Granada Catholic Castilian and Aragonese armies unite to battle Turkish Muslims at Granada, Spain.

1472-84 Portugal 184 are burned alive during Inquisition in Portugal; up to 1500 penitents per time are punished during public auto da fe "act of faith" festivals.

1475 Trent, Italy Nearly all Jews in Trent, Italy, are tortured, tried and burned amid unproved claims they had ritually sacrificed Christian child named Simon.

1478 Secret Jews Sixtus IV authorises King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella to revive Inquisition to flush out Jews and Muslims.

1481-1517 Spanish Inquisition 13,000 are burned in 36 years during Spanish Inquisition; 17,000 are burned in effigy and 290,000 tortured, imprisoned or bankrupted.

1481-1517 Mass burnings 2,000 are burned alive and 1000s brutally tortured at auto da fe "act of faith" festivals in Spain.

1482 African slaves White traders begin transporting black slaves from Africa to Christian world.

1483-96 Tomas Torquemada 1000s suffered excruciating agonies at hands of Tomas Torquemada, Spain's most notorious inquisitor, who was allegedly responsible for 10,220 burnings.

1484 Witchcraft bull Innocent VIII (1484-1492) issues Summis desiderantes affectibus bull triggering witchhunting mania lasting 300 years.

1484 Witchcraft mania Summis desiderantes affectibus bull establishes reality of witchcraft by claiming witches can fly, change shape and have intercourse with Devil.

1484-92 Age of Bastards Innocent VIII earns reputation as ruling during "Golden Age of Bastards" after siring some 100 illegitimate children, all supported by church funds.

1484+ Alsace 5000 are burned as witches in province of Alsace after Innocent VIII issues Summis desiderantes affectibus bull.

1484+ Bavaria 2000 are burned as witches in Bavaria after Innocent VIII issues Summis desiderantes affectibus bull.

1484+ Bamberg 900 are burned as witches in Bamberg after Innocent VIII issues Summis desiderantes affectibus bull.

1484+ Vaud 311 are burned as witches in Vaud after Innocent VIII issues Summis desiderantes affectibus bull.

1484+ Grenoble 167 are burned as witches in Grenoble after Innocent VIII issues Summis desiderantes affectibus bull.

1484+ Wurzburg 157 are burned as witches in Wurzburg after Innocent VIII issues Summis desiderantes affectibus bull.

1484+ Saxony 133 are burned as witches in single day in Saxony after Innocent VIII issues Summis desiderantes affectibus bull.

1484 Italy 41 are put to death at Como, Italy, within months of Summis desiderantes affectibus being issued.

1485 Cumanus 41 women are burned as witches under inquisitor Cumanus in 1485.

1485 Piedmont, Italy 100 are executed as witches in Piedmont valley, Italy.

1486 Heinrich Kramer Dominican inquisitor Heinrich Kramer (1430-1505) co-authors Malleus Maleficarium (Witches' Hammer) with Jakob Sprenger after being expelled for persecuting witches at Tyrol.

1486 Malleus Maleficarum 1000s are tried as witches after Malleus Maleficarum becomes official handbook of Inquisition.

1486 Women Malleus Maleficarum claims unbelief in witchcraft as heresy and women are more likely to become witches than men "because the female sex is more concerned with things of the flesh than men".

1487 Waldensians Pope Innocent VIII declares armed crusade against Waldensians in Savoy region of France.

1487+ 150 male and female members of Waldensian sect are cruelly butchered in one of many French Savoy towns obliterated by papal soldiers.

1490s Church spies Juan de Mariana reports people "were deprived of the liberty to hear and talk freely, since in all cities, towns and villages there were persons placed to give information of what went on. This was considered by some the most wretched slavery and equal to death".

1492 Spanish Moors Moors are defeated by Christian armies in Spain; last Spanish Muslims are driven out.

1492 Spanish Jews 150,000 Spanish Jews receive orders to either convert to Christianity or face expulsion from fear of "contaminating society". Historian HC Lea reports many Jews died during exodus.

1492 Mecklenburg 27 Jews are burned at Mecklenburg after being tortured into confessing they had defiled communion hosts.

1492-1503 Alexander VI Alexander VI (1492-1503) earns reputation as world's most notorious pope and wealthiest man after obtaining power through graft, embezzlement and murder.

1492 America discovered Christopher Columbus discovers San Salvador and begins colonisation of New World; Alexander VI divides Americas between Spain and Portugal.

1492+ Christianisation Within hours of landing Columbus procures 6 natives as "servants" before avowing to "convert the heathen Indians to our Holy Faith".

1492+ Columbus 150,000,000 North American Indians are enslaved, exported or killed in name of Christ over centuries at hands of Spanish and English explorers and pilgrims.

1493 South America Papal bull declares church under king Ferdinand is entitled to all land in South America: "If the Indians refuse, he may quite legally fight them, kill them and enslave them, just as Joshua enslaved the inhabitants of Canaan.

1493+ Cortes 30,000,000 Aztecs and Mayans die over years as Spanish conquistadors proselytise Christian faith.

1497 Florence Priceless Renaissance art is destroyed after church decides to burn books, ornaments and musical instruments inconsistent with Christian ideals.

1503-13 Julius II Julius II (1503-13) earns reputation as drunkard and sodomite who allegedly abused young men including Michelangelo.

1506 St Peter's Work begins on St Peters in Rome.

1508 Michelangelo Michelangelo begins painting Sistene Chapel ceiling.

1508 Bearn Countless lives are lost during mass witchcraft trials at Bearn, France.

1508 Toulouse 40 lives are lost during mass witchcraft trials at Toulouse, France.

1509 Henry VIII Henry VIII becomes King of England.

1509 Luxeuil, France Countless lives are lost during mass witchcraft trials at Luxeuil, France.

1510 Brescia, Italy 140 people are burned as witches at Brescia, Italy.

1510 Berlin 38 Jews are burned in Berlin after Jew confesses under torture that he had made communion wafer bleed.

1512 Capernicus Church condemns Capernicus theory that Earth revolves around sun.

1513-21 Leo X Leo X (1513-21) earns reputation for atheism, homosexuality and excesses; allegedly sparked Reformation with indulgence selling and claims such as "How much we have profited by the legend of Christ".

1514 Valcanonica, Italy 70 die as witches following mass witchtrials involving some 5000 suspects at Valcanonica, Italy.

1514 Como, Italy 300 people are executed as witches at Como, Italy.

1517 Reformation German reformer Martin Luther (1483-1546) leaps upon Leo's sale of indulgences by nailing his 95 Theses on door of Wittenberg Church.

1517+ Protestant support Luther's action receives widespread support among exploited poor who claim church more concerned with collecting money than teaching scripture.

1517+ War on Catholics Protestant preachers reject saint worship, Mary idolatry and sacraments claiming God should be experienced through scripture.

1517+ Religious wars Reformation unleashes torrent of hate claiming lives of millions in numerous religious wars.

1517+ Martin Luther Martin Luther is accused of bigotry after claiming women are inferior: "Girls begin to talk and to stand on their feet sooner than boys because weeds always grow up more quickly than good crops".

1517+ Jew hater Luther's hatred of Jews is outlined in Jews And Their Lies; pamphlet allegedly inspires Hitler to exterminate 6,000,000 Jews 420 years later.

1517+ Banishment Luther believes Jews should be enslaved or thrown out of Christian lands and their ghettos and synagogues be burned.

1517+ Anabaptists Luther sanctions execution of Anabaptists for heresy of "double baptism" - baptism first as infant then as adult.

1517 Mexican conquests Spanish conquistadors land in Mexico and begin conquests of Aztecs and central America.

1520 Montezuma Aztec emperor Montezuma is murdered.

1520 Luther excommunicated Martin Luther is excommunicated by Pope Leo X (1513-1521).

1521 Diet of Worms Martin Luther's doctrines are presented before Charles V and formally condemned.

1522 German NT Martin Luther completes translation of New Testament into German.

1523-34 Clement VII Clement VII (1523-34) earns reputation as bastard, poisoner, sodomite, geomancer, church robber, atheist and "most disastrous of all pontiffs".

1523 Como, Italy 1000 people are burned as witches at Como, Italy.

c1523-34 Cesena massacre 8000 people, including children, are slaughtered at Cesena under Clement VII's instruction according to chronicler Paulus Jovius.

1525 Peasants' Revolt 8000 German civilians are slaughtered by papal army during Peasants' Revolt led by Protestant preacher Thomas Munzer (1490-1525).

1525 Tyndale Bible William Tyndale is executed by Catholic Church after printing English New Testament "so every plowboy might read it".

1525 Ulrich Zwingli Ulrich Zwingli (1484-1531) orders slaughter of 1000s of Anabaptists for crime of "double baptism".

1529 Diet of Speyer Catholic and Lutheran leaders mount individual campaigns to eradicate Anabaptists.

1529 Luxeuil Witch Madame Desle la Mansenee is tortured then hanged as witch at Luxeuil, France, based on gossip gathered secretly by Inquisitor-General of Besancon.

1530 Lutheran Church Martin Luther founds Lutheran Church.

1530 Alonca de Vargas Alonca de Vargas is burned at stake for smiling inappropriately at mention of Blessed Virgin.

1530 Alonso De Jaen Alonso De Jaen is burned at stake for urinating against church wall.

1531 Mary vision Catholic Church considers apparition of Mary at Guadalupe, Mexico, "worthy of belief".

1531 Anabaptists Wittenberg theologians sanction genocide of Anabaptists; sect members are hunted like rabbits before being mutilated or murdered.

c1531 Condemnation Luther and Zwingli publicly affirm Wittenberg edict sanctioning execution of Anabaptists.

1531 John Calvin 1000s of religious nonconformists are killed and witches burned after John Calvin (1509-1564) turns Geneva into religious police state.

c1531 Church "magic" Calvin rebels against church's belief in magic, claiming "papists pretend there is a magical force in the sacraments, independent of efficacious faith".

c1531 Michael Servetus Calvin orders execution of popular physician Michael Servetus for doubting Trinity.

c1531 Jacques Gruet Calvin orders beheading of Jacques Gruet for blasphemy.

c1531 Witches Calvin urges burning of witches.

1531 Henry VIII Henry VIII breaks from Catholic Church after being refused divorce from Catherine of Aragon; becomes Supreme Head of Church of England.

1532 Carolina Code 1000s suffer after Holy Roman Empire issues Carolina Code directing all witchcraft defendants undergo torture before death.

1534 English Reformation Henry VIII burns Sir Thomas More and other Catholics before commencing Reformation under Church of England.

c1534 Ireland Henry VIII crowns himself King of Ireland, thereby starting centuries of civil unrest after imposing Church of England on Irish Catholics.

1534 Elizabeth Barton Domestic servant Elizabeth Barton, of Kent, England, is hanged for witchcraft and treason at Tarbon after predicting death of Anne Boleyn.

1534-49 Paul III Paul III (1534-49) is accused of killing his mother and niece for inheritance and of poisoning two priests and bishop for disagreeing with him.

1536 Anne Boleyn Anne Boleyn (1507-36), Henry VIII's second wife, is executed at Tower of London amid rumours she practiced witchcraft.

1536 Calvin published Calvin publishes Institutes of Christian Religion which in 1541 becomes handbook of Scottish Reformation.

1538 Hubmaier University professor B Hubmaier is burned at the stake in Vienna.

1538 English crusade Paul III declares crusade against England in unsuccessful attempt to make them slaves of Catholic Church.

1538 Rich people Spanish author writes: "Bit by bit many rich people leave the country for foreign realms, in order not to live all their lives in fear and trembling every time an officer of the Inquisition enters their house; for continual fear is a worse death than a sudden demise".

1539-69 Great Bible First English Bible is authorised for public use in English churches; based on Tyndale version but "defective in many places".

1540 Jesuits Ignatius of Loyola (1491-1556) founds Society of Jesus to reconvert Poland, Hungary, Germany; Jesuit missionaries sent to New World, India and China.

1541 John Knox John Knox (1505-72) leads Calvinist Reformation in Scotland.

1542 Roman Inquisition Paul III establishes Roman Inquisition to eradicate Protestants: new levels of cruelty are introduced that "repelled even the Turks and the Saracens".

1542 Witchcraft Act Henry VIII passes England's first Witchcraft Act dictating harsh penalties against alchemists and witches who perform malefica through black magic.

1542-49 India 3800 die miserable deaths after Jesuit missionaries bring Inquisition to India.

1542+ India Several wars are waged between rival Catholic groups Jesuits and Capuchins in India.

1543 Bible denounced Parliament condemns Tyndale's Bible translation as "crafty, false and untrue" although 80 per cent of words also appear in Catholic Bible.

1542 Japan Jesuit missionaries and Portuguese traders arrive in Japan.

1545-63 Council of Trent Council of Trent establishes canons in war against Protestants (also called Counter Reformation).

1546 Bible banned King Henry VIII forbids anyone to possess copy of Tyndale's Bible.

1549 Masters Japanese Shoguns accuse Jesuits of "wanting to change the government of the country and make themselves masters of the soil".

c1549 Infighting Jesuits and Dominicans fight bitterly with each other over territorial and doctrinal claims in Japan.

1549 Prayer book Book of Common Prayer first appears in Episcopal (Anglican) Church.

1550-5 Julius III Julius III (1550-5) earns reputation as gay pope who makes teenage boyfriends cardinals and facilitates orgies where they sodomise each other.

1553-8 "Bloody Mary" Mary I becomes ruler of England and attempts to restore Catholicism through terror: 300 Protestants are burned in 3 years.

c1555 Censorship Mary I bans publishing of English Scriptures outside church.

1555-9 Paul IV Master torturer Paul IV (1555-9) establishes Christianity's first Jewish ghetto (in Rome) and extends Inquisition into Netherlands and Orient.

1557 Toulouse 40 people are executed as witches at Toulouse, France.

1557 Censorship Paul IV writes church's first Index of Forbidden Books.

1558-1603 Elizabeth I Elizabeth I becomes Protestant ruler of England and makes it illegal to celebrate Catholic mass or conduct Puritan worship.

c1560 Executions Elizabeth I executes Mary Queen of Scots and 200 other Catholics for conspiring to remove her from throne.

1560 Presbyterian Church John Knox (1505-1572) founds Scotch Presbyterian Church after disagreeing with Lutherans over sacraments and church government.

1560+ Kingdom divided Protestant church fragments into numerous sects each claiming sole access to divine truth.

1560-1628 Huguenots French Protestants (Huguenots) hunt down and kill 1000s of Catholic priests; one captain allegedly wears priests' ears as necklace.

1560-1628 Counter attack Pius orders papal commanders to slaughter Huguenots and kill every prisoner taken.

1562 Channel Islands 66 trials occur on Channel Islands between 1562 and 1736; almost 50 per cent of accused are sentenced to death.

1562+ Jersey Unnamed pregnant woman is burned alive at stake in Jersey's Royal Square; she gives birth during ordeal and baby is thrown back into flames.

1563 Black Plague Black Plague breaks out in Europe.

1563 Witchcraft Act Elizabeth I introduces new Witchcraft Act in England making folk magic and spirit invocation punishable by death, imprisonment or pillory.

1563+ England Vigilantes and lynch mobs are responsible for deaths of at least 2,000 "witches" in 200 years following Witchcraft Act introduction in England.

1563+ Indictments 535 indictments on charges of witchcraft are issued during Elizabeth I's reign.

1563+ Executions 82 accused are put to death on charges of witchcraft during Elizabeth I's reign.

1566 Chelmsford Agnes Waterhouse, 63, of Chelmsford, Essex, is hanged for bewitching neighbour to death and dispatching a familiar to kill cow and poultry.

1567 King James I James I (1566-1625) becomes King of Scotland (as James VI) and fuels witchunting hysteria by introducing Witchcraft Act.

1567+ Scotland 4400 individuals are executed as witches in Scotland until repeal of Witchcraft Act in 1736; most suffered brutal tortures before death.

1568 Poitiers 4 lives are lost during witchcraft trials at Poitiers, France.

1568 Netherlands Inquisition is established in Spanish Netherlands where 1000s were slain.

1570 James Calfhill James Calfhill (1530-70), Bishop of Worcester, claims "the vilest witches and sorcerers of the earth are the priests that consecrate crosses and ashes, water and salt, oil and cream, boughs and bones ...".

1570 Peru Theft and violence are virtually unknown in Peru before arrival of Spanish Christians and Inquisition; church supports native enslavement and theft of native land.

1570+ Strife One Mayan scribe writes: "The Spanish invasion was the beginning of tribute, the beginning of church dues, the beginning of strife".

1570 Mexico Inquisition is established in Mexico for "freeing the land which has become contaminated by Jews and heretics"; countless natives are burned.

1570+ Exploitation Dominicans, Augustinians and Jesuits exploit Mexicans by "owning the largest flocks of sheep, the finest sugar ingenios and the best kept estates".

1570 Elizabeth I Elizabeth I is excommunicated.

1571 Trois-Echelles French magician Trois-Echelles is convicted of sorcery and executed in Paris.

1571 Turkish conquest Naval armada commanded by Don Juan of Austria destroys Turkish Muslim fleet in Gulf of Lepanto after reportedly calling upon "Our Lady of the Rosary".

1572 St Bartholomew's Day Catholic troops sweep through Paris slaughtering between 10,000 and 20,000 Huguenots (Protestants); an estimated 700,000 flee during campaign.

1572 Gaspard de Coligny Catholic troops murder Huguenot leader Admiral Gaspard de Coligny; his head, hands and genitals are cut off, then his body is dumped in a river, before being dragged out and left to rot on a gallows.

c1572 Heretics Pope Gregory XIII writes to France's Charles IX of Huguenot massacre: "We rejoice with you that with the help of God you have relieved the world of these wretched heretics".

1572-1606 Bishop's Bible First Bible published by Episcopal (Anglican) Church is said to be "an inadequate and unsatisfactory revision of the Great Bible".

1573 Spanish Fury 1000s of Protestants are killed by Duke of Alma in Antwerp and Haarlem during onslaught called "the Spanish Fury".

1578 Kilkenny, Ireland Three unnamed women are executed as witches at Kilkenny, Ireland.

1578 Francisco Pena Inquisitor Francisco Pena claims purpose of Inquisition "is not to save the soul of the accused but to achieve the public good and put fear into others".

1579 Elizabeth Francis Elizabeth Francis, of Chelmsford, Essex, is hanged after being accused of using witchcraft to murder woman, Alice Poole.

1579 Ellen Smith Ellen Smith, of Chelmsford, Essex, is hanged after being accused of using witchcraft to murder 4-year-old girl.

1579 Alice Noakes Englishwoman Alice Noakes, of Chelmsford, Essex, is hanged after being accused of using witchcraft.

1579 France France extends death penalty to include "every charlatan and diviner, and others who practise necromancy, pyromancy, chiromancy and hydromancy".

c1580 Jean Bodin Jean Bodin (1529-96) revives witchhunt mania after claiming Devil wages war on Christians through witches in De la Demonomanie des Sorciers.

c1580 Slow burning Bodin condemns slow burning of witches as inadequate as they die after "only" half hour, "thereby escaping further punishment".

c1580 Mexico 879 heresy trials are recorded in late 1500s after Spanish Christians bring Inquisition to Mexico.

1580 Fortune tellers Elizabeth I adds fortune-tellers to 1563 Witchcraft Act.

1581 France Catholic Church prohibits possession of grimoires or spell books in France.

1582 Gregorian calendar Gregory XIII sanctions Gregorian calendar.

1582 St Osyth Witches 10 women are sentenced to death in England after they are accused of bewitching inhabitants of St Osyth during witchcraft hysteria in Essex.

1582 Avignon 18 individuals are burned as witches under Grand Inquisitor Sebastian Michaelis at Avignon, France.

1582 China Pagodas are destroyed, manuscripts burned and ancient customs eradicated after Jesuit missionaries bring Christianity to China.

1583 Vienna Viennese grandmother is tortured then burned alive after Jesuits claim she cursed her 16-year-old granddaughter with 12,652 demons "kept as flies".

1588 Spanish Armada English fleet defeat forces sent by Spain.

1589 Chelmsford Joan Prentice, Joan Cony and Joan Upney, are hanged as witches at Chelmsford, England, based on testimonies of children.

1589 Tours, France 14 individuals are condemned as witches at Tours, France but are spared after King Henry III (1551-89) intervenes; Inquisition condemns Henry as "witch protector".

1589 Dietrich Flade German judge Dietrich Flade is brutally tortured then burned after Peter Binsfield (1540-1603), Bishop of Treves, accuses him of witchcraft and conspiracy.

1589 Saxony 133 women are publicly burned as witches in one day at Quedlinburg, Saxony, Germany.

1590 Rebecca Lemp Accountant's wife Rebecca Lemp, of Nordlingen, Germany, is burned after undergoing severe torture to extract witchcraft confession.

1590 Nordlingen, Germany 32 people, most respectable citizens, are burned as witches at Nordlingen as mass hysteria sweeps Germany in early 1590s.

1590-1 Bavaria 49 out of population of 4700 are burned as witches during witchhunts at Werdenfels in Bavarian Alps.

1591 John Fian Scottish schoolteacher John Fian, of Saltpans, has legs smashed and fingernails torn out before being burned on witchcraft charges later described as "laughable".

1591 North Berwick Scotland's "North Berwick Witches" Agnes Sampson and Effie Maclean are burned at stake after being accused of crimes including attempted murder of James VI.

1591 Margaret Thomson Margaret Thomson dies under torture during notorious "North Berwick Witches" trials at Edinburgh; another woman, Gilly Duncan, also is brutally tortured.

1592 Norway Oluf Gurdal, of Bergen, becomes first person executed for witchcraft in Norway.

1593 Warboys Witches Warboys, Huntington.

1594 Norway Two unnamed persons are burned as witches in Bergen, Norway, while another victim is exiled.

1594 Nordlingen, Germany German woman Maria Hollin sparks public outrage after surviving 56 horrific torture sessions without confessing to accusations of witchcraft at Nordlingen.

1595 Nicolas Remy French judge Nicholas Remy (1530-1612) publishes Demonolatreiae arguing that "whatever is not normal is due to the Devil".

c1595 Serious crime Nicolas Remy denounces witchcraft as most serious of all crimes and personally sends some 900 witches to their deaths.

1595 Finland Finland's first witchcraft execution occurs at Pernaja after unnamed woman is accused of using magic to induce illness.

1596 Alice Gooderidge Alice Gooderidge, 60, dies in Derby prison after being brutally tortured following claims she had bewitched boy, Thomas Darling.

c1596 Ulster, Ireland 1000s of Catholics starve in exile after James I seizes Ulster from Roman Church and gives it to Scottish and English Protestants.

1597 Demonologie James I publishes Daemonologie which becomes official handbook of Scottish witchfinders; it endorses swimming and pricking to find Devil's mark.

1597 Aberdeen 23 women and one man are burned at Aberdeen in one of Scotland's most notorious witchcraft trials; accused are mainly elderly women.

1597 Edmund Hartley English conjurer and herbalist Edmund Hartley is hanged after court convicts him of causing two children of Leigh, Lancashire, to become "possessed".

1600 Giordano Bruno Scientist-philosopher Giordano Bruno is burned at stake in Rome for espousing Copernicus' theory that planets orbit sun.

1601 Peking Matteo Ricci enters Peking.

1601 Else Gwinner Baker's wife Else Gwinner, of Baden, Germany, is tortured by strappado, flogging and thumbscrews before being burned as witch.

1602 Discours des Sorciers 600 people, including young children, are sent to stake by Burgundy's most notorious witch judge, Henri Boguet (1550-1619); many are brutally tortured.

1602 Fear & persecution Henri Boguet writes infamous Discours des Sorciers which intensifies fear and persecution of witches in following decades.

c1602 Claude Janguillaume Claude Janguillaume breaks from ropes binding him to stake and is thrown back into fire three times before dying; one of many examples of horrors of German witchburnings.

1603 King James I James I (1566-1625) becomes King of England and introduces new Witchcraft Act intensifying Elizabeth I's Witchcraft Act of 1563.

1603+ Mostly women James 1 estimates ratio of women to men who "succumb" to witchcraft is 20 to 1; of those convicted, between 80 to 90 per cent are women.

1603+ Convictions Reports reveal 1 in 5 witches sent for trial in England under James I is convicted of witchcraft.

1604 Witchcraft Act James I introduces new Witchcraft Act making death (usually by hanging) mandatory for anyone convicted of witchcraft or signing pacts with Devil.

1604+ Salem inspiration James I Witchcraft Act is later cited by New England Puritans as basis for prosecution of 150 people at Salem, Massachusetts in 1692.

1604 Demonologie James I publishes Daemonologie in England where it finds ready audience among bigoted Protestant witchhunters.

1604-1736 England At least 1000 individuals are executed as witches in England until Witchcraft Act is repealed in 1736.

1606 Basilica Carlo Maderno redesigns St Peter's Basilica into Latin cross.

1607 Isobel Grierson Scottish woman Isobel Grierson is strangled then burned in Edinburgh after being accused of turning into cat and recruiting Devil to cause sickness and death.

1607 First US town First permanent English settlement in America at Jamestown.

1608 Earl of Mar Earl of Mar complains to Privy Council of appalling witch executions: "half burned (they) broke out of the fire and were cast alive in it again until they were burned to the death".

1608 William Perkins English demonologist William Perkins (1555-1602), author of Discourse of the Damned Art of Witchcraft, emphasises death penalty for witches and dismisses miracles claimed by Catholic Church as hoaxes.

1608+ White witches William Perkins claims white witches should be treated more severely than black witches because "they attempt to conceal diabolical origins of magic".

1608+ Inspiration Perkins' writings later inspires notorious US Congregationalist witchhunter Cotton Mather - prime mover behind Salem witchtrials.

1608 Basque witches 600 Basque men, women and children are executed as witches in 4 months by French lawyer Pierre de Lancre (1553-1631) who sweeps through Bearn in Pyrenees.

1609 Pierre Bocal Basque priest Pierre Bocal is burned alive after it is rumoured he presided over both Christian and pagan rites and wore goat mask.

1609 Baptist Church Baptist Church is founded by John Smyth due to objections to infant baptism in other Protestant churches.

1609-22 Witch Bishop 300 individuals are tortured and burned as witches in Bamberg, Germany, under "Witch Bishop" Johann Gottfried von Aschhausen.

1610 Navarre, Spain 6 witches are burned as witches in Navarre, Spain.

1610 Chelmsford Katherine Lawrett, of Colne Wake, Essex, is hanged at Chelmsford after being charged with using witchcraft to destroy horse belonging to one Francis Plaite.

1611-1800 King James Bible King James Bible is published based on Bishop's Bible; revisers over years have been called "damnable corrupters of God's word".

1611 Aix-en-Provence French priest Louis Gaufridi, of Marseilles, is slowly burned to death after being brutally tortured for allegedly sparking "possession" outbreak in convent.

1612 Pendle witches Anne Redfearne, Elizabeth Device, Anne Whittle, James Device, Alison Device, Alice Nutter, John Bulcock, Jane Bulcock , Katherine Hewitt and Isabel Robey are hanged in Lancashire as result of witch hysteria.

1612 Jennet Preston Jennet Preston, of York, is hanged after being "proved" of murder during "bier right" (belief corpse bleeds after being touched by murderer).

1616 Leicester 9 people are hanged after Leicester court finds them guilty of causing boy, 13, to suffer fits; Archbishop of Canterbury later declares their innocence.

1618 Margaret Barclay Scottish gentlewoman, Margaret Barclay, is strangled and burned at stake in Ayrshire after being tortured into confessing she used witchcraft to sink ship.

1618 Isobel Crawford Isobel Crawford, of Scotland, is tortured then burned after being named as accomplice by Margaret Barclay who confesses to witchcraft under torture.

1618-48 30-year war War lasting 30 years erupts between Catholics and Protestants in Germany, France, England, Sweden and Denmark.

1618-48 Catastrophe 14,000,000 people die in Germany alone from 30-year war between Catholics and Protestants described by one commentator as "human catastrophe".

1619 Lincoln Witches Anne Baker, Eileen Greene, Joan Willimot and Margaret and Philippa Flower are hanged as witches at Lincoln, England, after being accused of using magic against Earl of Rutland to make wife infertile.

1619-1860 African slaves 4,000,000 African slaves are shipped by Christians to North America aboard "the good ship Jesus Christ" between 1619 and 1860.

1620 Pilgrim Pilgrims sail from Holland to New England and establish Plymouth.

1623 Isobel Haldine Scottish woman Isobel Haldine, of Perth, is strangled and burned after she is accused of using magic to aid and cure sick people.

1623-33 Bamberg At least 600 people are burned as witches in Germany under Gottfried Johann Georg II Fuchs von Dornheim, Bishop of Bamberg; most endured brutal tortures before death.

1623-44 Urban VIII Urban VIII imprisons Galileo after ordering him to retract "damnable heresy" that earth revolves around sun.

1625-6 Catherine Henot Catherine Henot is burned under Archbishop Ferdinand of Cologne after being found guilty of bewitching nuns in St Claire.

1626 Manhattan Peter Minuit buys Manhattan Island from Indians for equivalent of $24.

1628 Johannes Junius Johannes Junius, mayor of Bamberg, Germany, is burned for witchcraft after being brutally tortured by thumbscrews, boots and strappado.

1630-40 Franz Buirmann 100s of Germans are burned as witches by church lawyer Franz Buirmann described as one of Europe's most ruthless witch judges.

1630-40 Wealthy Many of Buirmann's suspects are wealthy individuals who are brutally tortured into confessing charges so church may confiscate their property.

1630 Milan Numerous suspects are tortured then executed in Milan after being accused of causing plague outbreak by smearing magical ointment on city walls.

1631 Christine Boffgen Respected German matriarch Christine Boffgen, of Rheinbach, dies after having legs smashed by officials bent on extracting wealth for church.

1631 Dominic Gordel French priest Dominic Gordel, of Vomecourt, France, dies during thumbscrew, vice and ladder torture at Toul after being accused of witchcraft by children.

1630 Massachusetts Puritans flee to New England and establish colony at Massachusetts Bay.

1631 Friedrich von Spee Inquisitor Friedrich von Spee claims witchcraft confessions "inevitable": "If she confesses, her guilt is clear: she is executed; if she does not confess, the torture is repeated - twice, thrice, four times. She can never clear herself; the investigating body would feel disgraced if it acquitted a woman; once arrested and in chains, she has to be guilty, by fair means or foul".

1634 John Canne Writer John Canne says "the sacraments were not ordained by God to be used ... as charms and sorceries".

1634 Urbain Grandier French priest Urbain Grandier, has legs brutally smashed then is slowly burned at stake after being accused of bewitching Ursuline nuns at Loudun.

c1635 Benedict Carpzov Lutheran judge Benedict Carpzov (1595-1666) publishes Practica Rerum Criminalum to support systemise legal persecution of witches

c1635 Benedict Carpzov Benedict Carpzov, "lawgiver of Saxony", issues 20,000 death warrants for arrest, torture and execution of German witches throughout career.

1635 Pedro Ginesta Pedro Ginesta, 80, of Barcelona, is burned at stake after forgetting which day of week it was and accidentally eating bacon on Friday.

1636 Buirmann Official executioner of one of Europe's most ruthless witch judges, Franz Buirmann, himself is burned for witchcraft at Siegberg, Germany.

1637 Rheinbach Estimated 1 person in every 2 families in Rheinbach, Germany, is believed to have been executed by ruthless witch judge Franz Buirmann.

1637 Eichstatt Unnamed woman is burned for witchcraft after being tortured by flogging, ladder, boots and strappado at Eichstatt near Ingolstadt, Bavaria.

c1637 Eichstatt Estimated 2000 accused witches are burned after prolonged torture at Eichstatt during Bavarian witch hysteria.

1643 Newbury Witch Unnamed Englishwoman is executed for witchcraft at Newbury, Berkshire, after soldiers claimed she walked on water; woman claimed she was on raft.

1645-6 Matthew Hopkins 220 lives are lost over 14 months during witchtrials conducted by fanatical Puritan and self-described witchfinder general, Matthew Hopkins (1621-47).

1645-6 Torture Hopkins extracts witchcraft confessions by pricking, ducking, swimming, sleep deprivation or enforced walking for excessive periods.

1645 Chelmsford 5 women are hanged as witches at Chelmsford after Hopkins tortures "confessions" from elderly one-legged woman, Elizabeth Clarke.

1645 Chelmsford 26 women are hanged as witches at Chelmsford after Hopkins tortures confessions from 5 women before hanging them as witches.

1645 John Lowes English clergyman John Lowes, 80, of Brandeston, Suffolk, is hanged for witchcraft after being walked and swum in moat of Framlingham Castle.

1645 Bury St Edmunds 17 women are hanged at Bury St Edmunds, Suffolk, after being found guilty of witchcraft by self-styled witchfinder general, Matthew Hopkins (1621-47).

1645 Faversham Witches Joan Williford, Jane Holt, Joan Argoll and Elisabeth Harris are executed as witches at Faversham, Kent, after confessions are extracted under torture.

1645 Mother Lakeland Englishwoman Mother Lakeland is burned at stake in Ipswich after being accused of using witchcraft to murder husband and others.

1646 Castelnuovo, Italy 8 people are beheaded then burned after confessions are extracted under torture from elderly woman La Mercuria in Castelnuovo, Italy.

1647 Thomas Boulle French priest Thomas Boulle is tortured, dragged on hurdle then burned alive in Rouen after being accused of bewitching nuns at Louviers.

1647-62 Connecticut 11 people are convicted of witchcraft and executed in northeastern American trials conducted mainly by Puritans over 15 years.

1647 Alice Young Alice Young becomes first woman to be hanged for witchcraft in Connecticut after witchcraft legislation is passed by Puritans in 1642.

1647 Matthew Hopkins Matthew Hopkins is allegedly hanged after failing swimming ordeal conducted by mob testing his main method of "proving" witches.

1648 Polish Jews 200,000 Jews are slain during Christian massacres at Chmielnitzki, Poland.

1650 Norway Karen Thorsdatter and Bodil Kvams are burned at Kristiansand, Norway, after confessing to flying to sabbats on animals and plotting to kill local magistrate.

1650 Short sleeves New England Puritans issue law prohibiting wearing of short-sleeves "whereby the nakedness of the arm may be discovered".

1651 Mary Parsons Mary Parsons is sentenced to death by Boston court after being found guilty of using witchcraft to murder her child; she is later reprieved.

1651 Goodwife Bassett Goodwife Bassett is found guilty of witchcraft at Stratford, Connecticut.

1651 Neisse, Germany 42 women are roasted in ovens as witches in Niesse, Germany; more than 1000 "witches", as young as 2, are executed in similar manner in Niesse in 9 years.

1653 Sunday walks banned New England Puritans issue law prohibiting Sunday walks and visits to beach as "dishonouring God"; children playing on Sundays becomes "religious reproach".

1653 Anne Bodenham Doctor's assistant Anne Bodenham, of Wiltshire, is hanged after being accused of witchcraft and finding of "Devil marks" on her body.

1653-8 Oliver Cromwell Puritan leader Oliver Cromwell (1599-1658) becomes Lord Protector of England.

1653-8 Ironsides 1000s of Anglicans are slaughtered during bloody battles led by hymn-singing, Bible-wielding "Ironsides" under Puritan leader Oliver Cromwell.

c1655 Irish Catholics Cromwell seizes three-quarters of Ireland's land from Catholics in 3 years and orders slaughter of one-third of local population.

1655 Cologne Last recorded witch execution in Cologne.

1656 Quakers 100s are arrested, whipped, branded, mutilated and sold as slaves during Quaker persecutions conducted by rival Christian groups in US.

1656-7 Blaise Pascall Philosopher Blaise Pascall (1623-1662) writes: "Men never do evil so completely and cheerfully as when they do it from religious conviction".

1658 Restoration 1800 Puritan rectors are ousted from church posts after Anglican Restoration backlash commences following Cromwell's death in 1658.

c1658 Non-attendance Law is introduced during Restoration decreeing death penalty for anyone attending non-Anglican church service.

1659 Thomas Looten Frenchman Thomas Looten dies during torture after being accused of witchcraft at Lille; corpse is burned and remains hung on gibbet "for all to see".

1659 Norwich Englishwoman May Oliver is burned at stake after being convicted of witchcraft at Norwich, England.

1661 Dalkeith Witch Christine Wilson, of Scotland, is executed after being "proved" of murder during "bier right" (belief corpses bleed after being touched by murderer).

1661 Florence Newton Irish peasant Florence Newton, is executed at Cork after being accused of using witchcraft to kill man, David Jones, and bewitching servant girl, Mary Longdon.

1662 Hartford, Connecticut Rebecca Greensmith of Hartford, Connecticut, is executed after confessing to having intercourse with Devil in form of deer.

1662 Hartford, Connecticut Rebecca Greensmith's husband, Nathaniel, is executed despite denying all knowledge of wife's activities.

1662 Bury St Edmunds Englishwomen Rose Cullender and Amy Duny, of Lowestoft, are hanged at Bury St Edmunds after Puritan judge Matthew Hale (1609-76) convicts them of witchcraft based on testimonies of children.

1662 Isobel Gowdie Scottish farmer's wife Isobel Gowdie is hanged then burned for witchcraft after confessing to having intercourse with Devil and flying to sabbats on beanstalk.

1662 Auldearn Witches 12 members of suspected coven at Auldearn, Scotland, are sent to gallows after Isobel Gowdie confesses to their activities in Scottish court.

1662 Scottish witches Accused witches Katherine Sowter - "the Witch of Bandon" - and Janet Breadheid are hanged by Scottish court at Auldearn.

1663 Julian Cox English beggar Julian Cox (1593-1663) is executed for witchcraft after Somerset court hears she kept toad as familiar and could transform herself into hare.

1667-89 Austria 100 people are tortured into confessing to witchcraft practices in Salzburg, Germany, before being beheaded, strangled or burned.

1669 Katherine Harrison Katherine Harrison, of Wethersfield, Connecticut, is sentenced to death for witchcraft; sentence is later commuted to banishment from town.

1669 Mora witchhunt 70 women and 15 children are burned at stake at Mora, Sweden after children tell local pastor they were initiated into service of Satan.

1669 Witchcraft pamphlets Scholars claim Mora witchhunt commenced through children being influenced by printed pamphlets describing witchcraft sensations elsewhere.

1670 Rouen, France 525 people are indicted on charges of witchcraft at Rouen, France; death penalties are commuted to banishment under orders of Louis XIV.

1670 Norway Karen Snedkers and 6 others are burned as witches in Copenhagen after being accused of using magic against local councillor and city clerk.

1670 Scandinavia Ole and Lisbet Nypen are burned as witches at Trondheim after being accused of causing man to develop rheumatism and young girl to become cripple.

1675 St Paul's, London Christopher wren begins reconstruction of St Paul's Cathedral, London.

1675 Yorkshire Susan and Joseph Hinchcliffe, of Yorkshire, England, are murdered after children accuse them of using witchcraft to kill neighbour, Martha Haigh.

1676 Marquise de Brinvilliers French aristocrat Marquise de Brinvilliers (1639-76) is tortured, beheaded then burned after being accused of using witchcraft to kill relatives.

1677-81 Salzberg, Austria Estimated 100 people are tortured then beheaded, strangled or burned during witchcraft scare that sweeps Salzberg, Austria, in 4 years.

1677-80 Chambre Ardente 36 people are executed and 38 banished or sentenced to galleys over "Chambre Ardente" witchcraft scandal centring on court of Louis XIV.

1678 Pilgrim's Progress John Bunyan publishes Pilgrim's Progress.

1680 La Voisin French fortune teller La Voisin has legs smashed before being burned at stake during Chambre Ardente witchcraft scandal.

1680 Norway Man named Ingebrigt becomes last person executed for witchcraft in Norway after he is accused of attending sabbats and poisoning cattle.

c1680 "The Killing Time" 1000s of hardline Protestants called Cameronians are hunted down by royal troops during reign of King James II.

c1680 Puritan police state Puritans create New England religious police state imposing harsh penalties on doctrinal deviates.

c1680 Persecutions 1000s are hanged, flogged, pilloried, banished or have ears cut off or tongues bored with hot irons by Puritans during Massachusetts heresy persecutions.

c1680 Cursing Puritans decree death penalty for children who "curse" or "smite" parents.

1682 Madrid 21 heretics are burned, 50 Jews paraded in humiliating costumes and 10 witches flogged at auto da fe "act of faith" festival in Madrid city square.

1682 Exeter Witches Temperance Lloyd, Susanna Edwards and Mary Trembles, of Devon, are hanged for witchcraft during England's notorious Exeter trials.

1683 Finland Laws are passed in Finland directing death by hanging for male witches guilty of murder and burning for female counterparts.

1684 Last witch Alice Molland becomes last person executed for witchcraft in England after being hanged at Exeter.

1687 Finland Law is passed in Finland directing death penalty for individuals convicted of making pact with Devil.

1688 Goodwin Trial Boston laundress Goody Glover is convicted of witchcraft after allegedly causing 4 children to have fits while working in their home.

1689 Cotton Mather Congregational minister Cotton Mather (1662-1728) becomes US' most dedicated witchhunter after publishing Memorable Providences Relating to Witchcrafts and uttering "better whipped than damned".

1689 Blanckenstein German woman called Blanckenstein is burned alive at Naumburg, Saxony, after confessing under threat of torture to using witchcraft to kill livestock.

1690s Quaker persecutions Puritans hang 4 Quakers after law against preaching Quaker beliefs is introduced in Massachusetts.

1691 Balthasar Bekkar Dutch clergyman Balthasar Bekkar writes The World Bewitched claiming Catholic priests use witchcraft delusion to generate income.

1692 Salem witchtrials Church followers led by Cotton Mather hang 19 people for witchcraft and accuse 150 others during Massachusetts witchcraft craze of 1692.

1692 Giles Cory Giles Cory, 80, becomes only American citizen pressed to death for witchcraft.

1694 Elsche Nebelings German widow Elsche Nebelings, 63, is tried as witch in Saxony after showing girl how to make mouse "magically appear" in empty handkerchief.

1697 Paisley Witches 7 women are hanged then burned at Renfrewshire, Scotland, after girl, 14, concocts story they used witchcraft against her.

c1699 Irish persecution Sustained battles between Catholics, Anglicans and Puritans in Ireland result in establishment of Penal Laws in 1700s outlawing Catholicism.

c1699 Persecutions Protestants hunt Catholics with bloodhounds in Ireland; many are killed or banish.

1699 Ireland Unnamed Irish woman is burned for witchcraft after court convicts her of causing girl, 19, to have fits.

1699 Coggeshall witch Elderly Englishwoman, Widow Coman, dies after being swum as witch under orders from Reverend J Boys, vicar of Coggeshall.

1700 Shetland Unnamed witch is burned for witchcraft at Gallows Hill outside Scalloway, Shetland.

c1700 Marquis de Sade Catholic writer, Marquis de Sade, on whose name word "sadism" is based, claims receiving inspiration for perversions from church leaders.

1702-10 Camisards Efforts to stamp out Protestantism by Louis XIV causes fanatical Camisards to revolt and kill Catholic priests and burn churches in southern France.

1702-10 Camisards 1000s perish after Catholic troops slaughter entire villages occupied by Camisard leaders.

1703 New England Indians New England religious leader Reverend Solomon Stoddard proposes packs of dogs be trained to hunt down heathen Indians "as they do bears".

1704 Pittenweem witch Scottish woman Beatrix Laing, of Fife, dies of ill-treatment after being pricked and imprisoned in darkness for 5 months then undergoing sleep deprivation for 5 days after being accused of witchcraft.

1704 Thomas Brown Scottish man Thomas Brown, of Fife, dies of starvation while in prison after being accused of witchcraft and plotting to strangle one Alexander Macgregor.

1705 Joan Cornfoot Scottish woman Joan Cornfoot is beaten then pressed to death by angry mob after being accused of witchcraft at Pittenweem, Fife.

1705 Mary Philips English peasants Mary Philips and Elinor Shaw are hanged at Northampton after being tried for witchcraft based on village rumours.

1715 Huguenot Exodus 100,000s of French Huguenots (Protestants) flee France after Catholic King Louis XIV bans Protestant faith in France.

1715 Rhineland 1000s of Protestants are violently persecuted by Catholic Christians in Rhineland Palatinate.

1717 Jane Clark Jane Clark of Great Wigston, Leicester, undergoes swimming and scoring above breath after 25 neighbours accuse her of witchcraft.

1718 Bordeaux Unnamed Frenchman becomes last witch executed in Bordeaux, France, after he is accused of creating ligature to make person impotent.

c1720 Censorship English writer, Thomas Woolston, is imprisoned for life after voicing doubts over Resurrection and Bible miracles.

1722 Georg Prols Bavarian Georg Prols, is savagely tortured then beheaded and burned at Moosburg, near Freising, after schoolchildren accuse him of witchcraft.

1722 Scotland Old unnamed Scottish woman is burned to death after being convicted of turning daughter into pony and riding her to witches' Sabbat.

1723 Polish Jews 100s of Jews are beaten to death in Poland after Bishop of Gdansk rouses mob to invade country's Jewish ghettoes and provinces.

c1720 Polish Jews 100,000 Polish Jews are slaughtered in 300 communities before Ukraine is wrested from Catholics by Orthodox Russians.

1728-34 Bavaria 20 suspects are brought before courts on witchcraft charges at Augsburg, Bavaria; several are executed.

1730 Methodist Church John Wesley founds Methodist Church.

1732 Salzburg 20,000 Protestants are forcibly expelled from Salzburg under orders from Archbishop Firmian.

1735-36 Witchcraft Act Witchcraft Act of James I is repealed much to anger of church leaders still believing witches should be burned.

1742 Dijon, France Father Bertrand Guillaudot and 5 others are burned alive at Dijon, France, for using magic to divine location of treasure.

1745 Lyons, France Father Louis Debaraz is burned alive at Lyons after being convicted of performing sacrilegious masses in attempt to find treasure.

1749 Marienburg German nun Maria Renata is beheaded then burned at Marienburg after nuns claim she climbed over convent walls as pig while possessed.

1751 Osborne Witches Elderly couple Ruth and John Osborne suffer fatal injuries after being swum as witches by mob of 30 Christians at Hertfordshire, England.

1761 Nancy, France Unnamed Jew is executed for allegedly defiling communion host at Nancy, France.

1766 Abbeville, France Teenager Chevalier de La Barre, of Abbeville, is sentenced to have tongue cut out and right hand amputated before burning for singing during procession.

c1770 Voltaire Voltaire (1694-1778) becomes crusader against church cruelty and injustice; his Philosophical Dictionary is banned by Holy Office.

c1770 Jean Calas Protestant cotton trader Jean Calas is broken by wheel after allegedly killing his son for turning Catholic; Voltaire later prove man's innocence.

c1770 Jean Pierre Espinas Jean Pierre Espinas spends 23 years as convict oarsman in galley for giving lodgings to Protestant minister; Voltaire obtains man's release.

c1770 Nicolas Freret Historian Nicolas Freret writes: "The Christians have been more abominable monsters than all the sectaries of the other religions put together".

1775 Anna Maria Schwagel Bavarian Anna Maria Schwagel becomes last woman executed for witchcraft in Germany after being put to death in Kempten, Bavaria.

1776 American Independence British colonies in America declare independence from England.

1782 Switzerland Last legal execution of witch in Switzerland.

1788+ Tasmanian aborigines 4500 Tasmanian aborigines are exterminated after Anglican evangelist Governor Arthur Phillip mounts campaign against them for not embracing Christianity.

1789 French Revolution French Revolution begins with storming of Bastille.

c1789 Thomas Paine French Revolutionary Thomas Paine denounces Christianity as superstitious system for fanatics; his writings are banned in England.

1789 Cagliostro Italian nobleman Cagliostro (1743-1795) is sentenced to life imprisonment after offering guests magical services at Piazza Farnese, Rome.

c1800 Tithe War 1000s die and scores are wounded during religious riots in Ireland after Anglican Church imposes tithing on Catholic Church.

1801 Bucharest, Romania 128 Jews have throats cut after Orthodox priests spread rumours Christian children were used in blood-drinking rituals.

1803 Holy Empire ends Napoleon abolishes Holy Roman Empire.

1808-29 Spanish America Spanish-American wars of independence.

1814 Spanish Inquisition Spanish Inquisition suppressed by Napoleon is restored by Ferdinand VII in 1814.

1815-1900 Africa & Middle East Christians begin colonisation of North Africa and Middle East.

1821 Ireland Witchcraft Act is repealed in Ireland.

1823 Inquisition ends Spanish Inquisition is suppressed again in 1820, restored in 1823 and finally eradicated in 1834.

1827 Mormons Mormon Church is founded after Joseph Smith claims receiving visions of angel called Moroni.

c1840 Australian aborigines Explorer Paul Strzlecki claims 1000s of Australian aborigines are slaughtered for refusing to embrace Christianity.

1844 Stolen generation Australia introduces Protection of Children Act permitting church missionaries to "steal" aboriginal children for placement in white Christian homes.

1855 Lydia Maria Child US abolitionist and author Lydia Maria Child (1802-1880) claims "it is impossible to exaggerate the evil work theology has done in the world".

1858 Lourdes Catholic Church considers reported apparition of Mary in Lourdes, France, "worthy of belief".

1859 Darwin Charles Darwin publishes Origin of Species.

1862 US slavery ends Lincoln issues Emancipation Proclamation.

1863 Dummy English mute called Dummy, 80, dies after being swum as witch by Christian mob at Sible Hedington, Essex.

1864 Colorado Indians 700 heavily armed Christian troops exterminate all native American men, women and children of Sand Creek, Colorado; between 400 and 500 are killed.

1869 First Vatican Council Vatican confirms doctrine of papal infallibility meaning no Catholic may question papal authority.

c1870 Jehovah's Witnesses Charles Russell (1852-1922) founds Jehovah's Witnesses.

1882 Russia 35,000 Jews are expelled from Moscow after discovery one of Czar Alexander II's assassins is Jewish.

1887 Lucy Coleman Activist and author Lucy Coleman (1818-1906) condemns Bible as "an argument for the degradation of woman and the abuse by whipping of little children".

1888 Brazil Brazil abolishes slavery.

1885 Robert Ingersoll US philosopher Robert Ingersoll argues in Myth & Miracle that "theology has always sent the worst to heaven, the best to hell".

1885 Helen Gardner Helen Gardner argues in Men, Women and Gods Christianity and Bible "require of woman everything, and give her nothing".

c1890 Armenia 200,000 people die after Protestant forces move into Armenia causing civil unrest between Catholic and Orthodox Christians.

1891 Wounded Knee Heavily armed Christian troops exterminate all native American men, women and children of Wounded Knee in South Dakota.

1894 Clonmel burning Bridget Cleary (1868-94), of Tipperary, becomes last woman executed as witch in Ireland after she is roasted on kitchen fire at Clonmel.

1895 Friedrich Nietzsche Philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900) in The Antichrist condemns Christianity as "the one immortal blemish of mankind".

1896 Elizabeth Stanton US author Elizabeth Stanton (1815-1902) denounces Christianity as "the fountain of all tyranny".

1899 Mark Twain US novelist Mark Twain (1835-1910) denounces Christianity as having "mouth full of hypocrisies": "give her soap ... but hide the looking-glass".

c1900 Ireland Scores die during religious fighting following liberation of southern Ireland (Catholic) from northern Ireland (Protestant).

c1900 Sigmund Freud Psychiatrist Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) denounces Christianity as world's most egotistical religion as Christians claim "Jesus saves me".

1901 Pentecostal Church Pentecostal Church is formed in Topeka, Kansas as result of loss of evangelical fervour among Methodists and other churches; new fanaticism is introduced.

1903 Russian unrest 300 Jews die at Odessa and 120 at Yekaterinoslav after Orthodox Christians blame civil unrests on "Jewish machinations".

1909 Armenia 20,000 people die and scores are wounded during religious clashes between Protestant, Catholic and Orthodox Christians in Armenia.

1910 Albert Schweitzer German theologian Albert Schweitzer (1875-1965) denies historical Christ claiming "there is nothing more negative than the result of the critical study of the life of Jesus".

1914-18 First World War Bertrand Russell denounces WWI as wholly Christian in origin as "the three Emperors were devout, and so were the more warlike of the British Cabinet".

1917 Torture banned Codex Juris Canonici bull is introduced finally banning church-sanctioned torture.

1917-8 Russian revolution Orthodox Church is overthrown by Russian peasants perceiving church had become too greedy and powerful.

1917-8 Jews eradicated 60,000 Jews are killed in 530 Russian communities after political-religious uprising erupts aiming to "strike at the bourgeoisie and the Jews".

1922 Hitler Hitler reveals true religious beliefs in 1922 speech when he says: "My feelings as a Christian point me to my Lord and Saviour as a fighter".

1924 Robert Hughes Historian Robert Hughes says in Why I Quit Going To Church "of all the religions ... the Christian religion ha(s) the most horrible record".

1939-45 Second World War Pius XII (1939-58), "Hitler's Pope", turns blind eye to religious atrocities committed by Nazis against Jews during WWII.

1939-45 Holocaust 6,000,000 Jews die under Hitler's orders in human catastrophe allegedly inspired by Martin Luther's pamphlet, Jews and Their Lies.

1941-5 Ustashi 60,000 Orthodox Christians, Jews and Muslims are massacred by fanatical Catholic "Ustashi" soldiers under Croatian leader Ante Pavelic (1889-1959). ( corrected from 600,000 by )

1949 Dead Sea Scrolls Dead Sea Scrolls are discovered at Qumran raising questions about real truths behind Christianity.

c1950 Ireland Scores die during Catholic IRA terrorists attacks in attempts to unify Northern Ireland (Protestants) and southern Ireland (Catholics).

1951 Witchcraft Witchcraft as crime is finally removed from English statute books by British Parliament.

1955 Margaret Knight Author Margaret Knight (1903-83) claims in Morals Without Religion that "ethical teaching is weakened if it is tied up with dogmas that will not bear examination".

1957 Bertrand Russell English philosopher Bertrand Russell (1872-1970) claims Christian Church "has been and still is the principal enemy of moral progress in the world".

1958 Rudolph Bultmann German theologian Rudolph Bultmann (1884-1976) discounts historical Christ claiming biblical sources are "fragmentary and often legendary".

1962-5 Second Vatican Council John XXIII (1958-63) introduces 16 edicts aimed at renewing "ourselves and the flocks committed to us".

1968 Ulster Scores are killed during riots after Catholics protest exclusion from Northern Ireland economy; Protestant terrorists respond with bombs, guns and burning.

1970-90 Lives lost 3000 lives are lost in Northern Ireland between 1970 and 1990 as result of hostilities between Protestants and Catholics.

1970-80 Catholic wealth Vatican becomes third wealthiest nation behind America and Japan.

1978 John Paul II John Paul II (1978+) reaffirms support of conservative moral traditions and banning women priests.

1978 People's Temple 913 die after former Methodist minister and Bible cult leader Rev Jim Jones tells followers he is Messiah and they should commit "revolutionary suicide".

1981 Sherry Matulis Activist Sherry Matulis (1931+) says "if every criminal and inhumane act ever committed were traced to its root cause, that root would be buried deep in religion".

1983 Darkley, Ireland 3 worshipers are killed and 7 wounded after Catholic terrorists with automatic weapons burst into Protestant church in Ireland.

1985 Ulster 54 are killed, 916 wounded, 516 arrested and 31 kneecapped during Catholic and Protestant terrorist attacks in Northern Ireland.

1988 Armenia 100 people are killed during religious riots between Christian Armenians and Shiite Muslims.

1989 Jimmy Bakker US televangelist and former Assemblies of God minister Jimmy Bakker is convicted of bilking 114,000 Christian followers out of $250 million.

1991 Gulf War US and allies invade Iraq.

1993 Branch Davidians 80 die in fireball after former 7th Day Adventist and Bible cult leader David Koresh tells followers he is Messiah and apocalypse has begun.

1994 Gerald Ridsdale Victorian Catholic priest Father Gerald Ridsdale (1929-) becomes Australia's most notorious pedophile after receiving 18-year sentence for child sex abuse.

1997 Rudolph Kos Texas Catholic priest Father Rudolph Kos (1945-) receives 3 life sentences and his church is ordered to pay record $190 million damage bill for child sex abuse.

1997 Heaven's Gate 87 die after Bible cult leader Marshall Applewhite tells followers they should "graduate" to meet Jesus behind Hale-Bopp comet.

1998 Brazil 6 people, including 3 children, are beaten to death by United Pentecostal Church of Brazil members who believe they are possessed by Devil.

1998 Alabama bomber Christian fundamentalist Eric Rudolph becomes FBI's most wanted fugitive after Alabama abortion clinic bombing leaves 1 policeman dead and 1 nurse critically wounded.

1999 Nora Wall Former Sisters of Mercy nun Nora Wall (1948-), nicknamed "Sister Antichrist", becomes first woman in Ireland to receive maximum life sentence for rape.

1999 Catholic wealth Finance author Avro Manhattan claims Catholic Church in 1999 "will have indirect or direct control over one third of all sources of wealth in Western society".

1999 Pat Robertson Newspapers estimate US evangelist Pat Robertson's Christian empire, including TV station, diamond mine and university, is worth $312 million.

1999 Billy Graham Newspapers estimate US evangelist Billy Graham's Christian empire, which has over 10 million followers, grosses $100 million annually.

1999 Dr George Carey Archbishop of Canterbury causes shockwaves after announcing in millennium speech: "we cannot know Jesus was raised from the dead".

2000 Anglican wealth Archbishop of Canterbury George Carey criticises Western society for worshiping wealth just weeks before media reveals UK Anglican Church earned £4.4 billion in 1999.

2000 Anglican arms investment Media reports UK Anglican Church owned shares totalling over £20 million in military tank and helicopter manufacturer, GKN.

2000 Indonesia 512 Muslims are slaughtered or reported missing during religious battles in which Christians, with 28 lives lost, are described in Australian media as being "more ruthless" than Muslims.

2000 Uganda Over 1000 lives are lost in suicide-murder involving members of Ugandan Christian cult Movement for the Restoration of the Ten Commandments of God.

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